|Weight||c. 1.0 g|
|Security features||Security fibers, watermark, security thread, color shifting ink, micro printing, raised printing, EURion constellation|
|Material used||75% cotton|
|Years of printing||1861–present|
The United States twenty-dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of U.S. currency. A portrait of Andrew Jackson, the seventh U.S. president (1829–1837), has been featured on the obverse of the bill since 1928; the White House is featured on the reverse.
As of December 2018, the average life of a $20 bill in circulation is 7.8 years before it is replaced due to wear. About 11% of all notes printed in 2009 were $20 bills. Twenty-dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in violet straps.
Andrew Jackson first appeared on the $20 bill in 1928. Although 1928 coincides with the 100th anniversary of Jackson's election as president, it is not clear why the portrait on the bill was switched from Grover Cleveland to Jackson. (Cleveland's portrait was moved to the new $1000 bill the same year). According to the U.S. Treasury, "Treasury Department records do not reveal the reason that portraits of these particular statesmen were chosen in preference to those of other persons of equal importance and prominence."
The placement of Jackson on the $20 bill may be a historical irony; as president, he vehemently opposed both the National Bank and paper money and made the goal of his administration the destruction of the National Bank. In his farewell address to the nation, he cautioned the public about paper money.
|National Bank Note Types 1 & 2||1929||Jones||Woods||Brown|
|Federal Reserve Bank Note||1928A||Jones||Woods||Brown|
|Federal Reserve Note||1928||Tate||Mellon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1928A||Woods||Mellon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1928B||Woods||Mellon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1928C||Woods||Mills||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934||Julian||Morgenthau||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934 Hawaii||Julian||Morgenthau||Brown|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934A||Julian||Morgenthau||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934A Hawaii||Julian||Morgenthau||Brown|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934B||Julian||Vinson||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934C||Julian||Snyder||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934D||Clark||Snyder||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950||Clark||Snyder||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950A||Priest||Humphrey||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950B||Priest||Anderson||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950C||Smith||Dillon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950D||Granahan||Dillon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950E||Granahan||Fowler||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1963||Granahan||Dillon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1963A||Granahan||Fowler||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1969||Elston||Kennedy||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1969A||Kabis||Connally||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1969B||Bañuelos||Connally||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1969C||Bañuelos||Shultz||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1974||Neff||Simon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1977||Morton||Blumenthal||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1981||Buchanan||Regan||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1981A||Ortega||Regan||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1985||Ortega||Baker||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1988A||Villalpando||Brady||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1990||Villalpando||Brady||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1993||Withrow||Bentsen||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1995||Withrow||Rubin||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1996||Withrow||Rubin||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1999||Withrow||Summers||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2001||Marin||O'Neill||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2004||Marin||Snow||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2004A||Cabral||Snow||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2006||Cabral||Paulson||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2009||Rios||Geithner||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2013||Rios||Lew||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2017||Carranza||Mnuchin||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2017A||Carranza||Mnuchin||Green|
In a campaign called "Women on 20s", selected voters were asked to choose three of 15 female candidates to have a portrait on the $20 bill. The goal was to have a woman on the $20 bill by 2020, the centennial of the 19th Amendment which gave women the right to vote. Among the candidates on the petition were Harriet Tubman, Eleanor Roosevelt, Rosa Parks, and Wilma Mankiller, the first female chief of the Cherokee Nation.
On May 12, 2015, Tubman was announced as the winning candidate of that "grassroots" poll with more than 600,000 people surveyed and more than 118,000 choosing Tubman, followed by Roosevelt, Parks and Mankiller.
On June 17, 2015, then-Treasury Secretary Jack Lew announced that a woman's portrait would be featured on a redesigned $10 bill by 2020, replacing Alexander Hamilton. However, that decision was reversed, at least in part due to Hamilton's surging popularity following the hit Broadway musical Hamilton.
On April 20, 2016, Lew officially announced that Alexander Hamilton would remain on the $10 bill, while Andrew Jackson would be replaced by Tubman on the front of the $20 bill, with Jackson appearing on the reverse. Lew simultaneously announced that the five- and ten-dollar bills would also be redesigned in the coming years and put into production in the next decade.
While campaigning for president, Donald Trump reacted to the announcement that Tubman would replace Jackson on the twenty-dollar bill. The day following the announcement Trump called Tubman "fantastic", but stated that he would oppose replacing Jackson with Tubman, calling the replacement "pure political correctness", and suggested that Tubman could perhaps be put on another denomination instead.
On August 31, 2017, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said that he would not commit to putting Tubman on the twenty-dollar bill, explaining "People have been on the bills for a long period of time. This is something we’ll consider; right now we have a lot more important issues to focus on." According to a Bureau of Engraving and Printing spokesperson, the next redesigned bill will be the ten-dollar bill, not set to be released into circulation until at least 2026.
In May 2019, Mnuchin stated that no new imagery will be unveiled until 2026, and that a new bill will not go into circulation until 2028. In making the announcement, Mnuchin blamed the delay on technical reasons. However, an employee within the Bureau of Engraving and Printing told the New York Times that at the time of the announcement "the design appeared to be far along in the process." Democratic members of the House of Representatives asked Mnuchin to provide more specific reasons for the delay. In June, the Treasury Department's acting inspector general, Rich Delmar, announced his office would conduct an investigation into what caused the delay in production of the new bill featuring Tubman.
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