Typhoon Jebi (Maymay)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Jebi 2018-08-31 0332Z.jpg
Typhoon Jebi at peak intensity northwest of Guam on August 31
FormedAugust 26, 2018
DissipatedSeptember 9, 2018
(Extratropical after September 4)
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 195 km/h (120 mph)
1-minute sustained: 280 km/h (175 mph)
Lowest pressure915 hPa (mbar); 27.02 inHg
Fatalities17 total
Damage≥ $3.29 billion (2018 USD)
Areas affectedMariana Islands, Taiwan, Japan, Russian Far East, Arctic
Part of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Jebi, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Maymay, is considered to be the strongest typhoon to strike Japan since Typhoon Yancy in 1993.[1] Jebi formed as a tropical depression on August 26, before becoming the twenty-first named storm of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season on August 28. It rapidly intensified into a typhoon on the following day and reached its peak intensity on August 31, after striking the Northern Mariana Islands. Jebi initiated a slow weakening trend on September 2 and made landfall over Shikoku, and then the Kansai region of Japan, as a very strong typhoon on September 4.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A low-pressure area formed near the Marshall Islands early on August 25.[2] It remained devoid of a low-level circulation center (LLCC) next day;[3] however, the system developed further on August 27 and both the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center upgraded it to a tropical depression,[4] based on persistent deep convection wrapping into a consolidating LLCC.[5] Early on August 28, the system was upgraded to a tropical storm, with JMA assigning the storm the international name Jebi.[6] On the August 29, the JMA upgraded the storm to a typhoon, after it developed an eye with a central dense overcast, and underwent rapid intensification. Jebi continued to intensify, becoming the third super typhoon of the season and also the second Category 5-equivalent super typhoon of the season.

On September 4, Jebi made its first landfall over the southern part of Tokushima Prefecture at around 12:00 JST (03:00 UTC).[7] Afterward, Jebi crossed Osaka Bay and made its second landfall over Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture at around 14:00 JST (05:00 UTC),[8] and then moved over Osaka and Kyoto prefectures, before ultimately emerging into the Sea of Japan shortly after 15:00 JST (06:00 UTC).[9] Simultaneously, a cold front formed southwest of the typhoon, indicating the beginning of an extratropical transition.[10] On September 5, after JTWC issued a final warning at 00:00 JST (15:00 UTC),[11] Jebi was downgraded to a severe tropical storm at 03:00 JST (18:00 UTC), when it was located near the Shakotan Peninsula of Hokkaido.[12] The storm completely transitioned into a tropical storm-force extratropical cyclone off the coast of Primorsky Krai, Russia, shortly before 10:00 VLAT (09:00 JST, 00:00 UTC). Later, the extratropical cyclone moved inland.[13] The terrain of Khabarovsk Krai contributed to the steadily weakening of the storm as the it moved inland northwestward and then turned northward;[14] Jebi's extratropical low passed northeast of Ayan early on September 7.[15][16] Jebi's extratropical remnant continued northward, and then turned northeastward, before dissipating on early September 9 over the Arctic Ocean.

Impact

Taiwan

Typhoon Jebi brought large waves to the east coast of Taiwan on September 2 and 3 when it recurved northward east of the Ryukyu Islands. On September 2, at the Mystery Beach in Nan'ao Township, Yilan County, deadly incidents involving large waves were reported on September 2, causing 5 fatalities;[17] the other one death also occurred at the Neipi Beach in Su'ao Township.[18] In the next morning, also at the Neipi Beach, a middle-aged woman was also swept away by the waves; however, it was reported that she walked into the waves and stayed in the ocean, presumed to be a suicidal action.[19]

Japan

Maximum wind speed at Kansai International Airport on September 4 (JST)

Typhoon Jebi was the most intense tropical cyclone to make landfall over Japan since Typhoon Yancy in 1993, causing a significant disaster in the Kansai region. At least 11 deaths and more than 600 injuries were reported across the region. Kansai International Airport, one of the most important transport hubs in Japan, was completely shut down because of flooding. A fuel tanker rammed into Sky Gate Bridge R and severely damaged it, cutting off the linking road to the airport and leaving more than 3,000 travelers and employees stranded.[20]

The typhoon broke the historical records of 10-minute maximum sustained winds at 53 weather stations and the maximum gust at 100 weather stations in Japan, mostly on September 4.[21] The highest sustained winds from Jebi were recorded at Cape Muroto, of 48.2 m/s (174 km/h), although the maximum gust of 55.3 m/s (199 km/h) was ranked third. At Kankujima (the island of Kansai International Airport), the maximum sustained winds of 46.5 m/s (167 km/h) were ranked second and the maximum gust of 58.1 m/s (209 km/h) was ranked first, significantly higher than the previous records (from Typhoon Cimaron, only 12 days earlier) for the airport. At the downtown of Wakayama, the maximum sustained winds of 39.7 m/s (143 km/h) and the maximum gust of 57.4 m/s (207 km/h) were also recorded. Even at Chūō-ku, the financial center of Osaka, the exceptional maximum gust of 47.4 m/s (171 km/h) was recorded.[22] Jebi also produced a maximum storm surge of 3.29 m (10.8 ft) in Osaka, surpassing the previous record of 2.93 m (9.6 ft) from the 2nd Muroto Typhoon (Typhoon Nancy) in 1961.[23]

Agricultural damage were about ¥32.57 billion (US$292 million),[24] and Estimates of insured damage ranged from US$3–5.5 billion (¥340–620 billion).[25]

See also