San Jose, California
City of San José
SJ skyline at night horizontal.jpg
USA-San Jose-De Anza Hotel-3.jpg
USA-San Jose-Bank of Italy-5 (cropped).jpg
USA-San Jose-City Hall-Rotunda-3 (cropped).jpg
Downtown San Jose (30001966530).jpg
Valencia Hotel, Santana Row (cropped).jpg
Mount Hamilton (Winter, Early 2019) (cropped).jpeg
Official seal of San Jose, California
Seal
Motto(s): 
The Capital of Silicon Valley
Shown within Santa Clara County
Shown within Santa Clara County
San Jose is located in California
San Jose
San Jose
Location within California
San Jose is located in the United States
San Jose
San Jose
Location within the United States
San Jose is located in North America
San Jose
San Jose
Location within North America
Coordinates: 37°20′N 121°54′W / 37.333°N 121.900°W / 37.333; -121.900Coordinates: 37°20′N 121°54′W / 37.333°N 121.900°W / 37.333; -121.900
Country United States
State California
County Santa Clara
RegionSan Francisco Bay Area
MetroSan Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara
CSASan Jose-San Francisco-Oakland
Pueblo foundedNovember 29, 1777
Founded asPueblo de San José de Guadalupe
IncorporatedMarch 27, 1850[1]
Named forSaint Joseph
Government
 • TypeCouncil–manager[2]
 • BodySan Jose City Council
 • MayorSam Liccardo[3] (D)
 • Assemblymembers[4]
Area
 • City181.36 sq mi (469.72 km2)
 • Land178.24 sq mi (461.63 km2)
 • Water3.12 sq mi (8.09 km2)  1.91%
 • Urban
342.27 sq mi (741.03 km2)
 • Metro
2,694.61 sq mi (6,979 km2)
Elevation82 ft (25 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • City945,942
 • Estimate 
(2019)[8]
1,021,795
 • Rank3rd in California[9]
10th in the United States
 • Density5,732.79/sq mi (2,213.44/km2)
 • Urban
1,894,389 (29th)
 • Metro
1,998,463 (34th)
 • CSA
8,837,789 (5th)
Demonym(s)San Josean(s)
Josefino/a(s)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
ZIP codes
Area code(s)408/669
FIPS code06-68000
GNIS feature IDs1654952, 2411790
Websitewww.sanjoseca.gov

San Jose[A] (/ˌsæn hˈz, -ˈs/; Spanish: [saŋ xoˈse]; Spanish for '"Saint Joseph"'),[13] officially the City of San José,[B] is the cultural, financial, and political center of Silicon Valley[14][15][16] and the largest city in Northern California, by both population and area. With an estimated 2019 population of 1,021,795, it is the third-most populous city in California (after Los Angeles and San Diego) and the tenth-most populous in United States.[17] Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles (466.1 km2). San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States.[18][19][20][21] San Jose is the main component of the San Jose–Sunnyvale–Santa Clara Metropolitan Statistical Area, with an estimated population of around 2 million residents in 2018.[22] It is also the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively.[23][24][25]

San Jose is notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence,[26][27][28] Mediterranean climate, and extremely high cost of living.[29] San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural, political, and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley". San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, and has the third highest GDP per capita in the world (after Zürich, Switzerland and Oslo, Norway), according to the Brookings Institution.[30] The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita.[31] With a median home price of $1,085,000,[32] San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey.[33][34][35][36] Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Inc., PayPal, Broadcom, Samsung, Acer, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Zoom maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley.

Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias.[37] It then became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years later, San Jose became the state's first capital.[38] Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s. The rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U.S. Census indicated that San Jose had officially surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California.[39] By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy.[40]

History

Historical affiliations

Pre-Columbian period

The Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BC.[41][42][43] The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family. With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José.[44]

Spanish period

A 1781 map of the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe
The Luis María Peralta Adobe in San Pedro Square (built in 1797) is San Jose's oldest building.
San Jose celebrates the anniversary of its foundation every year at the Peralta Adobe.

California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time, California and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California (Spanish: Provincia de las California). For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and largely ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California finally surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition.[45]

In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's lightly populated and largely ungoverned borderlands. That year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission. First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, and Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, and a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís.[46]

San Jose was officially founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain.[47] San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network.[48] In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved approximately a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza (modern-day Plaza de César Chávez).[49]

In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias, officially split the province into two parts: Alta California (Upper California), which would eventually become a U.S. state, and Baja California (Lower California), which would eventually become two Mexican states.

Mexican period

San Jose became part of the First Mexican Empire in 1821, after Mexico's War of Independence was won against the Spanish Crown, and in 1824, part of the First Mexican Republic. With its newfound independence, and the triumph of the republican movement, Mexico set out to diminish the Catholic Church's power within Alta California by secularizing the California missions in 1833.[citation needed]

In 1824, in order to promote settlement and economic activity within sparsely populated California, the Mexican government began an initiative, for Mexican and foreign citizens alike, to settle unoccupied lands in California. Between 1833 and 1845, thirty-eight rancho land grants were issued in the Santa Clara Valley, 15 of which were located within modern day San Jose's borders. Numerous prominent historical figures were among those granted rancho lands in the Santa Valley, including James A. Forbes, founder of Los Gatos, California (granted Rancho Potrero de Santa Clara), Antonio Suñol, Alcalde of San Jose (granted Rancho Los Coches), and José María Alviso, Alcalde of San Jose (granted Rancho Milpitas).[citation needed]

In 1835, San Jose's population of approximately 700 people included 40 foreigners, primarily Americans and Englishmen. By 1845, the population of the pueblo had increased to 900, primarily due to American immigration. Foreign settlement in San Jose and California was rapidly changing Californian society, bringing expanding economic opportunities and foreign culture.[50]

By 1846, native Californios had long expressed their concern for the overrunning of California society by its growing and wealthy Anglo-American community.[51] On July 11, 1846, with the onset of the Mexican–American War, Captain Thomas Fallon conquered San Jose in the name of the Bear Flag Revolt for the California Republic, officially ending Mexican rule in Alta California.[citation needed]

American period

San Jose in 1875, when Santa Clara Valley was one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world
Notre Dame High School's original campus in 1876. It was the first school accredited in California to give degrees to women.

By the end of 1847, the Conquest of California by the United States was complete, as the Mexican–American War came to an end.[42] In 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally ceded California to the United States, as part of the Mexican Cession. On December 15, 1849, San Jose became the capital of the unorganized territory of California. With California's Admission to the Union on September 9, 1850, San Jose became the state's first capital.[52]

On March 27, 1850, San Jose was incorporated. It was incorporated on the same day as San Diego and Benicia; together, these three cities followed Sacramento as California's earliest incorporated cities.[53] Josiah Belden, who had settled in California in 1842 after traversing the California Trail as part of the Bartleson Party and later acquired a fortune, was the city's first mayor.[54] San Jose was briefly California's first state capital; legislators met in the city from 1849 to 1851. (Monterey was the capital during the period of Spanish California and Mexican California).[55] The first capitol no longer exists; the Plaza de César Chávez now lies on the site, which has two historical markers indicating where California's state legislature first met.[56]

In the period 1900 through 1910, San Jose served as a center for pioneering invention, innovation, and impact in both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air flight. These activities were led principally by John Montgomery and his peers. The City of San Jose has established Montgomery Park, a Monument at San Felipe and Yerba Buena Roads, and John J. Montgomery Elementary School in his honor. During this period, San Jose also became a center of innovation for the mechanization/industrialization of agricultural and food processing equipment.[57]

Though not affected as severely as San Francisco, San Jose also suffered significant damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Over 100 people died at the Agnews Asylum (later Agnews State Hospital) after its walls and roof collapsed,[58] and San Jose High School's three-story stone-and-brick building was also destroyed. The period during World War II was a tumultuous time. Japanese Americans primarily from Japantown were sent to internment camps, including the future mayor Norman Mineta. Following the Los Angeles zoot suit riots, anti-Mexican violence took place during the summer of 1943. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported San Jose's population as 98% white.[59]

The Bank of Italy Building, built in 1926, is the oldest skyscraper in Downtown San Jose.

As World War II started, the city's economy shifted from agriculture (the Del Monte cannery was the largest employer and closed in 1999[60]) to industrial manufacturing with the contracting of the Food Machinery Corporation (later known as FMC Corporation) by the United States War Department to build 1,000 Landing Vehicle Tracked.[61] After World War II, FMC (later United Defense, and currently BAE Systems) continued as a defense contractor, with the San Jose facilities designing and manufacturing military platforms such as the M113 Armored Personnel Carrier, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and various subsystems of the M1 Abrams battle tank.[62]

IBM established its West Coast headquarters in San Jose in 1943 and opened a downtown research and development facility in 1952. Both would prove to be harbingers for the economy of San Jose, as Reynold Johnson and his team would later invent RAMAC, as well as the hard disk drive, and the technological side of San Jose's economy grew.[63]

The Ford Motor Company relocated its factory in Richmond to a new location in the suburb of Milpitas, called the San Jose Assembly Plant, which was one of the primary locations for manufacturing the Ford Mustang.[citation needed]

During the 1950s and 1960s, City Manager A. P. "Dutch" Hamann led the city in a major growth campaign. The city annexed adjacent areas, such as Alviso and Cambrian Park, providing large areas for suburbs. An anti-growth reaction to the effects of rapid development emerged in the 1970s, championed by mayors Norman Mineta and Janet Gray Hayes. Despite establishing an urban growth boundary, development fees, and the incorporations of Campbell and Cupertino, development was not slowed, but rather directed into already-incorporated areas.[61]

The 1928 San Jose annual Fiesta de las Rosas parade in Downtown

On April 3, 1979, the San Jose City Council adopted San José, with the diacritical mark on the "e", as the spelling of the city name on the city seal, official stationery, office titles and department names.[64] Also, by city council convention, this spelling of San José is used when the name is stated in mixed upper- and lower-case letters, but not when the name is stated only in upper-case letters. The accent reflects the Spanish version of the name, and the dropping of accents in all-capital writing was typical in Spanish. While San José is commonly spelled both with and without the acute accent over the "e", the city's official guidelines indicate that it should be spelled with the accent most of the time and sets forth narrow exceptions, such as when the spelling is in URLs, when the name appears in all-capital letters, when the name is used on social media sites where the diacritical mark does not render properly, and where San Jose is part of the proper name of another organization or business, such as San Jose Silicon Valley Chamber of Commerce, that has chosen not to use the accent-marked name.[65][66] The 1965 city charter, as amended, states the name of the municipality as City of San José, with the accent mark.[67] The city's website appears to use a mixture of both; for example, the "City of San José" in the text uses the mark but the "City of San Jose" logo image does not.[68]

San Jose's position in Silicon Valley triggered further economic and population growth. Results from the 1990 U.S. Census indicated that San Jose surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in the Bay Area for the first time.[39] This growth led to the highest housing-cost increase in the nation, 936% between 1976 and 2001.[69] Efforts to increase density continued into the 1990s when an update of the 1974 urban plan kept the urban growth boundaries intact and voters rejected a ballot measure to ease development restrictions in the foothills. Sixty percent of the housing built in San Jose since 1980 and over three-quarters of the housing built since 2000 have been multifamily structures, reflecting a political propensity toward Smart Growth planning principles.[70]

Geography

San Jose is located at 37°20′07″N 121°53′31″W / 37.335278°N 121.891944°W / 37.335278; -121.891944. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 180.0 sq mi (466 km2), of which 3.4 sq mi (8.8 km2) (1.91%) is water, making it the fourth-largest California city by land area (after Los Angeles, San Diego and California City).[17]

San Jose lies between the San Andreas Fault, the source of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the Calaveras Fault. San Jose is shaken by moderate earthquakes on average one or two times a year. These quakes originate just east of the city on the creeping section of the Calaveras Fault, which is a major source of earthquake activity in Northern California. On April 14, 1984, at 1:15 pm local time, a 6.2 magnitude earthquake struck the Calaveras Fault near San Jose's Mount Hamilton.[71] The most serious earthquake, in 1906, damaged many buildings in San Jose as described earlier. Earlier significant quakes rocked the city in 1839, 1851, 1858, 1864, 1865, 1868, and 1891. The Daly City Earthquake of 1957 caused some damage. The Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 also did some damage to parts of the city. The other faults near San Jose are the Monte Vista Fault and the Hayward Fault Zone.[citation needed]

Cityscape

Overhead panorama of downtown San Jose
Looking west over northern San Jose (downtown is at far left) and other parts of Silicon Valley.

San Jose's expansion was made by the design of "Dutch" Hamann, the City Manager from 1950 to 1969. During his administration, with his staff referred to as "Dutch's Panzer Division", the city annexed property 1,389 times,[72] growing the city from 17 to 149 square miles (44 to 386 km2),[73] absorbing the communities named above, changing their status to "neighborhoods."

They say San José is going to become another Los Angeles. Believe me, I'm going to do everything in my power to make that come true.

— "Dutch" Hamann, 1965[74]

Sales taxes were a chief source of revenue. Hamann would determine where major shopping areas would be, and then annex narrow bands of land along major roadways leading to those locations, pushing tentacles across the Santa Clara Valley and, in turn, walling off the expansion of adjacent communities.[75]

During his reign, it was said the City Council would vote according to Hamann's nod. In 1963, the State of California imposed Local Agency Formation Commissions statewide, but largely to try to maintain order with San Jose's aggressive growth. Eventually the political forces against growth grew as local neighborhoods bonded together to elect their own candidates, ending Hamann's influence and leading to his resignation.[76] While the job was not complete, the trend was set. The city had defined its sphere of influence in all directions, sometimes chaotically leaving unincorporated pockets to be swallowed up by the behemoth, sometimes even at the objection of the residents.[72]

Major thoroughfares in the city include Monterey Road, the Stevens Creek Boulevard/San Carlos Street corridor, Santa Clara Street/Alum Rock Avenue corridor, Almaden Expressway, Capitol Expressway, and 1st Street (San Jose).

Topography

A satellite image of the Santa Clara Valley in the South Bay Area; San Jose makes up most of the urbanization in the center of the valley.
The Santa Clara Valley experiences a Mediterranean climate, with an average of 301 days of sunshine.

The Guadalupe River runs from the Santa Cruz Mountains (which separate the South Bay from the Pacific Coast) flowing north through San Jose, ending in the San Francisco Bay at Alviso. Along the southern part of the river is the neighborhood of Almaden Valley, originally named for the mercury mines which produced mercury needed for gold extraction from quartz during the California Gold Rush as well as mercury fulminate blasting caps and detonators for the U.S. military from 1870 to 1945.[77] East of the Guadalupe River, Coyote Creek also flows to south San Francisco Bay and originates on Mount Sizer near Henry W. Coe State Park and the surrounding hills in the Diablo Range, northeast of Morgan Hill, California.

The lowest point in San Jose is 13 feet (4.0 m) below sea level at the San Francisco Bay in Alviso;[78] the highest is 2,125 feet (648 m).[79] Because of the proximity to Lick Observatory atop Mount Hamilton, San Jose has taken several steps to reduce light pollution, including replacing all street lamps and outdoor lighting in private developments with low pressure sodium lamps.[80] To recognize the city's efforts, the asteroid 6216 San Jose was named after the city.[81]

San Jose lies close to the Pacific Ocean and a small portion of its northern border touches San Francisco Bay. Santa Clara Valley is the population center of the Bay Area and, like the hub and spokes of a wheel, surrounding communities emanate outwards from the valley. This growth, in part, has shaped the greater Bay Area as it is today in terms of geographic population distribution and the trend of suburbanization away from the valley.[citation needed]

There are four distinct valleys in the city of San Jose: Almaden Valley, situated on the southwest fringe of the city; Evergreen Valley to the southeast, which is hilly all throughout its interior; Santa Clara Valley, which includes the flat, main urban expanse of the South Bay; and the rural Coyote Valley, to the city's extreme southern fringe.[82]

Climate

San Jose, like most of the Bay Area, has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb),[83] with warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. San Jose has an average of 301 days of sunshine and an annual mean temperature of 60.5 °F (15.8 °C). It lies inland, surrounded on three sides by mountains, and does not front the Pacific Ocean like San Francisco. As a result, the city is somewhat more sheltered from rain, giving it a semiarid feel with a mean annual rainfall of 15.82 inches or 401.8 millimetres, compared to some other parts of the Bay Area, which can receive about three times that amount.

Like most of the Bay Area, San Jose is made up of dozens of microclimates. Because of a more prominent rain shadow from the Santa Cruz Mountains, Downtown San Jose experiences the lightest rainfall in the city, while South San Jose, only 10 mi (16 km) distant, experiences more rainfall, and somewhat more extreme temperatures.

The monthly daily average temperature ranges from around 50 °F (10 °C) in December and January to around 70 °F (21.1 °C) in July and August.[84] The highest temperature ever recorded in San Jose was 109 °F (42.8 °C) on June 14, 2000; the lowest was 19 °F (−7.2 °C) on December 22–23, 1990. On average, there are 2.7 mornings annually where the temperature drops to, or below, the freezing mark; and sixteen afternoons where the high reaches or exceeds 90 °F or 32.2 °C. Diurnal temperature variation is far wider than along the coast or in San Francisco but still a shadow of what is seen in the Central Valley.

Climate data for San Jose, California (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1893–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 79
(26)
81
(27)
89
(32)
95
(35)
102
(39)
109
(43)
108
(42)
105
(41)
108
(42)
101
(38)
85
(29)
79
(26)
109
(43)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 69.7
(20.9)
73.2
(22.9)
83.4
(28.6)
86.3
(30.2)
90.1
(32.3)
92.3
(33.5)
93.1
(33.9)
94.3
(34.6)
98.7
(37.1)
91.2
(32.9)
79.5
(26.4)
69.2
(20.7)
100.4
(38.0)
Average high °F (°C) 58.1
(14.5)
61.9
(16.6)
65.7
(18.7)
69.3
(20.7)
74.3
(23.5)
79.1
(26.2)
81.9
(27.7)
81.9
(27.7)
80.1
(26.7)
74.0
(23.3)
64.3
(17.9)
58.0
(14.4)
70.7
(21.5)
Daily mean °F (°C) 50.1
(10.1)
53.3
(11.8)
56.2
(13.4)
58.9
(14.9)
63.4
(17.4)
67.5
(19.7)
70.0
(21.1)
70.1
(21.2)
68.5
(20.3)
63.2
(17.3)
55.1
(12.8)
50.0
(10.0)
60.5
(15.8)
Average low °F (°C) 42.0
(5.6)
44.7
(7.1)
46.6
(8.1)
48.6
(9.2)
52.4
(11.3)
56.0
(13.3)
58.1
(14.5)
58.3
(14.6)
56.8
(13.8)
52.5
(11.4)
46.0
(7.8)
41.9
(5.5)
50.3
(10.2)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 33.4
(0.8)
36.4
(2.4)
39.1
(3.9)
42.3
(5.7)
47.2
(8.4)
50.2
(10.1)
53.2
(11.8)
53.8
(12.1)
52.1
(11.2)
47.3
(8.5)
38.3
(3.5)
33.1
(0.6)
31.0
(−0.6)
Record low °F (°C) 18
(−8)
24
(−4)
25
(−4)
26
(−3)
32
(0)
33
(1)
40
(4)
39
(4)
35
(2)
30
(−1)
21
(−6)
19
(−7)
18
(−8)
Average rainfall inches (mm) 3.07
(78)
3.11
(79)
2.54
(65)
1.18
(30)
0.51
(13)
0.10
(2.5)
0.02
(0.51)
0.02
(0.51)
0.18
(4.6)
0.80
(20)
1.68
(43)
2.61
(66)
15.82
(402.12)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.2 10.3 9.4 5.6 3.2 0.8 0.2 0.3 1.3 3.2 7.2 10.2 61.9
Source: NOAA[85][86]

With the light rainfall, San Jose and its suburbs experience about 300 fully or partly sunny days a year. Rain occurs primarily in the months from November through April. During the winter and spring, hillsides and fields turn green with grasses and vegetation, although deciduous trees are few. With the coming of the annual hot summer dry period, the vegetation dies and dries, giving the hills a golden cover which, unfortunately, also provides fuel for grass fires.

Measurable precipitation falls in downtown San Jose on an average of 59 days a year.[citation needed] "Rain year" precipitation has ranged from 4.83 inches (122.7 mm) between July 1876 and June 1877 to 30.30 inches (769.6 mm) between July 1889 and June 1890, although at the current site since 1893 the range is from 5.77 inches (146.6 mm) in "rain year" 1975–76 to 30.25 inches (768.3 mm) in "rain year" 1982–83. The most precipitation in one month was 12.38 inches (314.5 mm) in January 1911. The maximum 24-hour rainfall was 3.60 inches (91.4 mm) on January 30, 1968. Although summer is normally quite dry in San Jose, occasional summer monsoon storms from Arizona can bring unusual thunderstorms and high humidity to the area. In fact, a very heavy thunderstorm on August 21, 1968, brought 1.92 inches (48.8 mm) of rain, causing some flooding.[citation needed]

The snow level drops as low as 4,000 ft (1,220 m) above sea level, or lower, occasionally coating nearby Mount Hamilton and, less frequently, the Santa Cruz Mountains, with snow that normally lasts a few days. Snow will snarl traffic traveling on State Route 17 towards Santa Cruz. Snow rarely falls in San Jose; the most recent snow to remain on the ground was on February 5, 1976, when many residents around the city saw as much as 3 inches (0.076 m) on car and roof tops. The official observation station measured only 0.5 inches (0.013 m) of snow.[87]

Neighborhoods and districts

The city is generally divided into the following areas: Downtown San Jose, Central, West San Jose, North San Jose, East San Jose, and South San Jose. Many of these regions were originally unincorporated communities or separate municipalities that were later annexed by the city.

Besides those mentioned above, some well-known communities within San Jose include Japantown, Rose Garden, Midtown San Jose, Willow Glen, Naglee Park, Burbank, Winchester, Alviso, East Foothills, Alum Rock, Communications Hill, Little Portugal, Blossom Valley, Cambrian, Almaden Valley, Silver Creek Valley, Evergreen Valley, Edenvale, Santa Teresa, Seven Trees, Coyote Valley, and Berryessa. A distinct ethnic enclave in San Jose is the Washington-Guadalupe neighborhood, immediately south of the SoFA District; this neighborhood is home to a community of Hispanics, centered on Willow Street.

Parks

President William McKinley memorial in St. James Park
The San Jose Japanese Friendship Garden at Kelley Park

San Jose possesses about 15,950 acres (6,455 ha) of parkland in its city limits, including a part of the expansive Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The city's oldest park is Alum Rock Park, established in 1872.[88] In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, reported that San Jose was tied with Albuquerque and Omaha for having the 11th best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities.[89]

Demographics

Census Pop.
18709,089
188012,56738.3%
189018,06043.7%
190021,50019.0%
191028,94634.6%
192039,64237.0%
193057,65145.4%
194068,45718.7%
195095,28039.2%
1960204,196114.3%
1970459,913125.2%
1980629,40036.9%
1990782,24824.3%
2000894,94314.4%
2010945,9425.7%
Est. 20191,021,795[8]8.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[102]

In 2014, the U.S. Census Bureau released its new population estimates. With a total population of 1,015,785,[103] San Jose became the 11th U.S. city to hit the 1 million mark, even though it is currently the 10th most populous city.

Racial composition 2010[104] 1990[59] 1970[59] 1940[59]
White 42.8% 62.8% 93.6% 98.5%
—Non-Hispanic 28.7% 49.6% 75.7%[105] n/a
Black or African American 3.2% 4.7% 2.5% 0.4%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 33.2% 26.6% 19.1%[105] n/a
Asian 32.0% 19.5% 2.7% 1.1%
Other race 15.7% 12.3% 0.8% (X)
Two or more races 5.0% n/a n/a n/a

2010

Map of racial distribution in San Jose, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot represents 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow).
Thematic map showing median household income across central Santa Clara County as of 2014; the darker the color, the more affluent the area.

The 2010 United States Census[106] reported that San Jose had a population of 945,942. The population density was 5,256.2 people per square mile (2,029.4/km²). The racial makeup of San Jose was 404,437 (42.8%) White, 303,138 (32.0%) Asian (10.4% Vietnamese, 6.7% Chinese, 5.6% Filipino, 4.6% Indian, 1.2% Korean, 1.2% Japanese, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.2% Thai, 0.2% Pakistani, 0.2% Laotian), 30,242 (3.2%) African American, 8,297 (0.9%) Native American, 4,017 (0.4%) Pacific Islander, 148,749 (15.7%) from other races, and 47,062 (5.0%) from two or more races. There were 313,636 residents of Hispanic or Latino background (33.2%). 28.2% of the city's population was of Mexican descent; the next largest Hispanic groups were those of Salvadoran (0.7%) and Puerto Rican (0.5%) heritage. Non-Hispanic Whites were 28.7% of the population in 2010,[107] down from 75.7% in 1970.[59]

The census reported that 932,620 people (98.6% of the population) lived in households, 9,542 (1.0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 3,780 (0.4%) were institutionalized. There were 301,366 households, out of which 122,958 (40.8%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 162,819 (54.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 37,988 (12.6%) had a female householder with no husband present, 18,702 (6.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 16,900 (5.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2,458 (0.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 59,385 households (19.7%) were made up of individuals and 18,305 (6.1%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.09. There were 219,509 families (72.8% of all households); the average family size was 3.54.

The age distribution of the city was as follows: 234,678 people (24.8%) were under the age of 18, 89,457 people (9.5%) aged 18 to 24, 294,399 people (31.1%) aged 25 to 44, 232,166 people (24.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 95,242 people (10.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.8 males.

There were 314,038 housing units at an average density of 1,745.0 per square mile (673.7/km²), of which 176,216 (58.5%) were owner-occupied, and 125,150 (41.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.6%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.3%. 553,436 people (58.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 379,184 people (40.1%) lived in rental housing units.

2000

As of the census[108] of 2000, there were 894,943 people, 276,598 households, and 203,576 families residing in the city.

The population density was 5,117.9 people per square mile (1,976.1/km²). There were 281,841 housing units at an average density of 1,611.8 per square mile (622.3/km²). Of the 276,598 households, 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.4% were non-families. 18.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.20 and the average family size was 3.62.

In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 26.4% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 35.4% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.5 males.

According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was the highest in the U.S. for any city with more than a quarter million residents with $76,963 annually. The median income for a family was $86,822.[109] Males had a median income of $49,347 versus $36,936 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,697. About 6.0% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

The cost of living in San Jose and the surrounding areas is among the highest in California and the nation, according to 2004 data.[110] Housing costs are the primary reason for the high cost of living, although the costs in all areas tracked by the ACCRA Cost of Living Index are above the national average. Households in the city limits have the highest disposable income of any city in the U.S. with over 500,000 residents.[111][112]

San Jose is a United States Foreign-Trade Zone. The City received its Foreign Trade Zone grant from the U.S. Federal Government in 1974, making it the 18th foreign-trade zone established in the United States. Under its grant, the City of San Jose is granted jurisdiction to oversee and administer foreign trade in Santa Clara County, Monterey County, San Benito County, Santa Cruz County, and in the southern parts of San Mateo County and Alameda County.[113]

San Jose lists many companies with 1,000 employees or more, including the headquarters of Adobe, Altera, Brocade Communications Systems, Cadence Design Systems, Cisco Systems, eBay, Lee's Sandwiches, Lumileds, PayPal, Rosendin Electric, Sanmina-SCI, Western Digital and Xilinx, as well as major facilities for Becton Dickinson, Ericsson, Hewlett-Packard Enterprise, Hitachi, IBM, Kaiser Permanente, KLA Tencor, Lockheed Martin, Nippon Sheet Glass, Qualcomm, and AF Media Group. The North American headquarters of Samsung Semiconductor are located in San Jose.[114][115] Approximately 2000 employees will work at the new Samsung campus which opened in 2015.

Other large companies based in San Jose include Align Technology, Altera, Atmel, Bloom Energy, Bristlecone (company), CEVA, Cypress Semiconductor, Cohesity, Echelon, Extreme Networks, GlobalLogic, Harmonic, Integrated Device Technology, Maxim Integrated, Micrel, Move, Netgear, Novellus Systems, Nutanix, Oclaro, OCZ, Quantum, SunPower, Sharks Sports and Entertainment, Supermicro, Tessera Technologies, TiVo, Ultratech, VeriFone, Viavi Solutions, Zoom Video Communications, and Zscaler. Sizable government employers include the city government, Santa Clara County, and San Jose State University.[116] Acer's United States division has its offices in San Jose.[117] Prior to its closing, Netcom had its headquarters in San Jose.[118][119]

On July 31, 2015, Cupertino-based Apple Inc. purchased a 40-acre site in San Jose.[citation needed] The site, which is bare land, will be the site of an office and research campus where it is estimated that up to 16,000 employees will be located. Apple paid $138.2 million for the site.[120] The seller, Connecticut-based Five Mile Capital Partners, paid $40 million for the site in 2010.[121] Real estate experts expect that other tech companies currently located in Silicon Valley will also follow in Apple's path by purchasing land or property in San Jose.[122]

Silicon Valley

The large concentration of high-technology engineering, computer, and microprocessor companies around San Jose has led the area to be known as Silicon Valley. Area schools such as the University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Santa Cruz, San Jose State University, San Francisco State University, California State University, East Bay, Santa Clara University, and Stanford University pump thousands of engineering and computer science graduates into the local economy every year.

San Jose residents produce more U.S. patents than any other city.[123] On October 15, 2015, the United States Patent and Trademark Office opened a satellite office in San Jose to serve Silicon Valley and the Western United States.[124][125] Thirty-five percent of all venture capital funds in the U.S. are invested in San Jose and Silicon Valley companies.[123] By April 2018, Google was in the process of planning the "biggest tech campus in Silicon Valley" in San Jose.[126]

In January 2014, Forbes Magazine reported that Careerbliss.com had ranked San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara metro area as the happiest place to work in the United States. The report cited a large concentration of technology jobs that typically offer a high salary and opportunity for growth, in addition to companies providing "fun and innovative work environments" as some of the reasons for the ranking.[127]

High economic growth during the tech bubble caused employment, housing prices, and traffic congestion to peak in the late 1990s. As the economy slowed in the early 2000s, employment and traffic congestion was somewhat diminished.[128] In the mid-2000s, traffic along major highways again began to worsen as the economy improved. San Jose had 405,000 jobs within its city limits in 2006, and an unemployment rate of 4.6%. In 2000, San Jose residents had the highest median household income of any city in the United States with a population over 300,000, and currently has the highest median income of any U.S. city with over 280,000 people.

On March 14, 2013, San Jose implemented a public wireless connection in the downtown area.[129]

"Data". www.wickedlyfastwifi.com. Retrieved May 15, 2019. Wireless access points were placed on outdoor light posts throughout the city.[130]

Media

San Jose is served by Greater Bay Area media. Print media outlets in San Jose include the Mercury News, the weekly Metro Silicon Valley, El Observador and the Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal. The Bay Area's NBC O&O, KNTV 11, is based in San Jose. In total, broadcasters in the Bay Area include 34 television stations, 25 AM radio stations, and 55 FM radio stations.[131]

In April 1909, Charles David Herrold, an electronics instructor in San Jose, constructed a radio station to broadcast the human voice. The station, "San Jose Calling" (call letters FN, later FQW), was the world's first radio station with scheduled programming targeted at a general audience. The station became the first to broadcast music in 1910. Herrold's wife Sybil became the first female "disk jockey" in 1912. The station changed hands a number of times before eventually becoming today's KCBS in San Francisco.[132] Therefore, KCBS technically is the oldest radio station in the United States, and celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2009 with much fanfare.

Top employers

As of June 30, 2017, the top employers in the city were:[133]

No. San Jose's Top Employers Employees
1 County of Santa Clara 17,800
2 Cisco Systems 14,000
3 City of San Jose 6,159
4 PayPal 3,000
5 Western Digital 3,000
6 eBay 3,000
7 IBM 2,750
8 Kaiser Permanente 2,500
9 Adobe Systems, Inc. 2,200
10 Insight Global 1,950
11 Good Samaritan Hospital 1,950
12 Brocade Communications 1,750
13 Cadence Design Systems 1,700
14 Super Micro Computer, Inc. 1,700
15 Regional Medical Center 1,600

Culture

Architecture

The Scottish Rite Temple of San Jose, on St. James Park, built 1924.

Because the downtown area is in the flight path to nearby Mineta San Jose International Airport (also evidenced in the above panoramic), there is a height limit for buildings in the downtown area, which is underneath the final approach corridor to the airport. The height limit is dictated by local ordinances, driven by the distance from the runway and a slope defined by Federal Aviation Administration regulations. Core downtown buildings are limited to approximately 300 feet (91 m) but can get taller farther from the airport.[134]

There has been broad criticism over the past few decades of the city's architecture.[135] Citizens have complained that San Jose is lacking in aesthetically pleasing architectural styles. Blame for this lack of architectural "beauty" can be assigned to the re-development of the downtown area from the 1950s onward, in which whole blocks of historic commercial and residential structures were demolished.[136] Exceptions to this include the Downtown Historic District, the Hotel De Anza, and the Hotel Sainte Claire, both of which are listed in the National Register of Historic Places for their architectural and historical significance.

San Pedro Square is one of San Jose's oldest neighborhoods.

Municipal building projects have experimented more with architectural styles than have most private enterprises.[137] The Children's Discovery Museum, Tech Museum of Innovation, and the San Jose Repertory Theater building have experimented with bold colors and unusual exteriors. The new City Hall, designed by Richard Meier & Partners, opened in 2005 and is a notable addition to the growing collection of municipal building projects.[138]

San Jose has many examples of houses with fine architecture. Late 19th century and early 20th century styles exist in neighborhoods such as Hanchett Park, Naglee Park, Rose Garden, and Willow Glen (including Palm Haven).

Styles include Craftsman, Mission Revival, Prairie style, and Queen Anne style Victorian.

Notable architects include Frank Delos Wolfe, Theodore Lenzen, Charles McKenzie,[139] and Julia Morgan.[140]

Visual arts

Public art is an evolving attraction in the city. The city was one of the first to adopt a public art ordinance at 2% of capital improvement building project budgets,[141] and as a result of this commitment a considerable number of public art projects exist in the downtown area, and a growing collection in neighborhoods including libraries, parks, and fire stations. In particular, the Mineta Airport expansion incorporated art and technology into its development.

San Jose's 240th Anniversary celebrations at the Peralta Adobe, 2017.

Early public art included a statue of Quetzalcoatl (the plumed serpent) downtown, controversial in its planning because some called it pagan, and controversial in its implementation because many felt that the final statue by Robert Graham did not look like a winged serpent, and was more noted for its expense than its aesthetics. Locals joked that the statue resembles a pile of feces.[142]

A statue of Thomas Fallon also met strong resistance from those who called him largely responsible for the decimation of early native populations. Chicano/Latino activists protested because he had captured San Jose by military force in the Mexican–American War (1846). They also protested the perceived "repression" of historic documents detailing Fallon's orders expelling many of the city's Californio (early Spanish/Mexican/Mestizo) residents. In October 1991 protests at Columbus Day and Dia de la Raza celebrations stalled than plan, and the statue was stored in a warehouse in Oakland for more than a decade. The statue returned in 2002 to a less conspicuous location: Pellier Park, a small triangular patch at the merge of West Julian and West St. James streets.[143]

In 2001, the city sponsored SharkByte, an exhibit of decorated sharks based on the mascot of the hockey team, the San Jose Sharks, and modeled after Chicago's display of decorated cows.[144] Large models of sharks decorated in clever, colorful, or creative ways by local artists were displayed for months at dozens of locations around the city. After the exhibition the sharks were auctioned off for charity.

In 2006, Adobe Systems commissioned an art installation titled San Jose Semaphore by Ben Rubin,[145] at the top of its headquarters building. Semaphore is composed of four LED discs which "rotate" to transmit a message. The content remained a mystery until it was deciphered in August 2007.[146][147] The visual art installation is supplemented with an audio track, transmitted from the building on a low-power AM station. The audio track provides clues to decode the message being transmitted.

San Jose retains a number of murals in the Chicano history tradition of Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco of murals as public textbooks.[148]

Although intended to be permanent monuments to the city's heritage as a mission town founded in 1777, a number of murals have been painted over, notably Mural de la Raza, on the side of a Story Rd shoe store, and Mexicatlan at the corner of Sunset and Alum Rock. In addition, two of three murals by Mexican artist Gustavo Bernal Navarro have disappeared.[148] The third mural, La Medicina y la Comunidad at the Gardner clinic on East Virginia Street, depicts both modern and traditional healers.[148]

Surviving Chicano history murals include Nuestra Senora de Guadelupe at Our Lady of Guadalupe church and the 1970s or 1980s Virgen de Guadelupe Huelga Bird at Cal Foods east of downtown. The Guadalajara restaurant has the 1986 Guadalajara Market No. 2 by Edward Earl Tarver III and a 2013 work by Jesus Rodriguez and Empire 7, La Gran Culture Resonance.[148]

An unknown artist painted the Huelga Bird and Aztec City mural in the 1970s or 1980s on the Clyde L. Fisher Middle School. In 1995 Antonio Nava Torres painted The Aztec Calendar Handball Court at Biebrach Park, and the unknown artist of Chaco's Pachuco painted it on the former Chaco's Restaurant in the 1990s. The Jerry Hernandez mural by Frank Totres at Pop's Mini Mart on King Road dates to 2009, and another recent mural by Carlos Rodriguez on the Sidhu Market at Locust and West Virginia depicts a stern-looking warrior.[148]

Performing arts

The city is home to many performing arts companies, including Opera San Jose, Symphony Silicon Valley, Ballet San Jose Silicon Valley, sjDANCEco, The San Jose Symphonic Choir, Children's Musical Theater of San Jose,[149] the San Jose Youth Symphony, the San Jose Repertory Theatre, City Lights Theatre Company, The Tabard Theatre Company, San Jose Stage Company, and the now-defunct American Musical Theatre of San Jose which was replaced by Broadway San Jose in partnership with Team San Jose. San Jose is also home to the San Jose Museum of Art,[150] one of the nation's premiere Modern Art museums. The annual Cinequest Film Festival in downtown has grown to over 60,000 attendees per year, becoming an important festival for independent films. The San Francisco Asian American Film Festival is an annual event, which is hosted in San Francisco, Berkeley, and Downtown San Jose. Approximately 30 to 40 films are screened in San Jose each year at the Camera 12 Downtown Cinemas. The San Jose Jazz Festival is another of many great events hosted throughout the year.

The SAP Center at San Jose is one of the most active venues for events in the world. According to Billboard Magazine and Pollstar, the arena sold the most tickets to non-sporting events of any venue in the United States, and third in the world after the Manchester Evening News Arena in Manchester, England, and the Bell Centre in Montreal, Canada, for the period from January 1 – September 30, 2004.[151] Including sporting events, the SAP Center averages 184 events a year, or roughly one event for every two days, which is significantly higher than the average for NHL arenas.[citation needed]

Sports

The SAP Center, home of the San Jose Sharks.
Club Sport Founded League Venue (capacity)
San Francisco 49ers Football 1946 National Football League Levi's Stadium (68,500)
San Jose Sharks Hockey 1991 National Hockey League SAP Center (17,562)
San Jose Earthquakes Soccer 1995 Major League Soccer Earthquakes Stadium (18,000)
San Jose Barracuda Hockey 2015 American Hockey League (AAA) SAP Center (17,562)
San Jose Giants Baseball 1988 California League (High-A) Excite Ballpark (4,200)
San Jose State Spartans NCAA Football 1893 Mountain West Conference CEFCU Stadium (21,520)

San Jose is home to the San Jose Sharks of the NHL, the San Jose Barracuda of the AHL, and the San Jose Earthquakes of Major League Soccer. The Sharks and the Barracuda play in the SAP Center at San Jose. The Earthquakes built an 18,000 seat new stadium that opened in March 2015. San Jose was a founding member of both the California League and Pacific Coast League in minor league baseball. San Jose currently fields the San Jose Giants, a High-A affiliate of the San Francisco Giants. The NFL's San Francisco 49ers call neighboring Santa Clara home.

San Jose has "aggressively wooed" the Oakland Athletics to relocate to San Jose from nearby Oakland, and the Athletics in turn have said that San Jose is their "best option", but the San Francisco Giants have thus far exercised a veto against this proposal.[152] In 2013, the city of San Jose sued Major League Baseball for not allowing the Athletics to relocate to San Jose.[153] On October 5, 2015 the United States Supreme Court rejected San Jose's bid on the Athletics.[154]

From 2005 to 2007, the San Jose Grand Prix, an annual street circuit race in the Champ Car World Series, was held in the downtown area. Other races included the Trans-Am Series, the Toyota Atlantic Championship, the United States Touring Car Championship, the Historic Stock Car Racing Series, and the Formula D Drift racing competition.

In 2004, the San Jose Sports Authority hosted the U.S. Olympic team trials for judo, taekwondo, trampolining and rhythmic gymnastics at the San Jose State Event Center. In 2008, around 90 percent of the members of the United States Olympic team were processed at San Jose State University prior to traveling to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.[155] The 2009 Junior Olympics for trampoline were also held here.

In August 2004, the San Jose Seahawk Rugby Football Club hosted the USA All-Star Rugby Sevens Championships at Watson Bowl, east of Downtown. San Jose State hosted the 2011 American Collegiate Hockey Association (ACHA) national tournament.[156] The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament is also frequently held in San Jose.

Landmarks

Notable landmarks in San Jose include Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose, History Park at Kelley Park, Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph, Plaza de César Chávez, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library, Mexican Heritage Plaza, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, Lick Observatory, Hayes Mansion, SAP Center at San Jose, Hotel De Anza, San Jose Improv, Sikh Gurdwara of San Jose, Peralta Adobe, Excite Ballpark, Spartan Stadium, Japantown San Jose, Winchester Mystery House, Raging Waters, Circle of Palms Plaza, San Jose City Hall, San Jose Flea Market, Oak Hill Memorial Park, San Jose electric light tower, and The Tech Museum of Innovation.

Museums and institutions

The Trianon Theatre, in Downtown San Jose (top), and Rosicrucian Park, in Rose Garden (bottom).