A port bow view of the Singapore training ship RSS PANGLIMA (P-68) underway.jpg
RSS Panglima underway in the Singapore Strait
History
United Kingdom
NameHMS Panglima
OperatorRoyal Navy
BuilderUnited Engineers Ltd
Laid down1954
Launched14 January 1956
CommissionedMay 1956
FateTransferred to Malaysia
Naval Ensign of Malaysia (1963–1968).svgMalaysia
NameKD Panglima
OperatorRoyal Malaysian Navy
Commissioned22 September 1963
FateTransferred to Singapore
Singapore
NameRSS Panglima
OperatorRepublic of Singapore Navy
Commissioned1 January 1966
Decommissioned9 July 1991
IdentificationPennant number: P68
FateSold to New West Coast Pte Ltd
General characteristics
Class and typeFord-class boat
Length35.7 m (117 ft)
Beam6.1 m (20 ft)
Propulsion820 kW
Speed15 knots (17 mph; 28 km/h)
Range3,000 miles (4,800 km)
Complement49 officers and enlisted
Armament
  • 1 × anti-aircraft gun
  • Anti-submarine depth-chargers

RSS Panglima (P68) was the first ship of the Republic of Singapore Navy. The ship was commissioned in 1956 as HMS Panglima and was the third ship to be given the name. She was regarded as a milestone for the Malayan shipbuilding industry. During her Royal Navy service, the ship hosted distinguished guests such as South Vietnamese vice president Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ and Singapore's first native head of state the Yang di-Pertuan Negara Yusof bin Ishak. She also embarked on numerous goodwill visits to nearby ports and conducted naval training for new sailors.

Upon Singapore's merger to form Malaysia, the ship was recommissioned as KD Panglima in September 1962. She engaged in several minor skirmishes with Indonesia during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation. Singapore's secession on 9 August 1965 led to the ship's recommissioning as RSS Panglima in January 1966.

The ship underwent a major refit prior to being transferred to Midshipman School in 1983 to serve exclusively as a training ship. In 1991, she was decommissioned and sold at auction, after having served in three navies across 35 years of active service. The Naval Military Experts Institute still bears her name today.

Name and predecessors

The word Panglima is derived from a Malay language title commonly translated as warrior or commander.[1][2] HMS Panglima was the third in a series of ships to bear the name. Her first predecessor Panglima was a 75 foot (23 m) motor launch built in 1937 which served as a training ship for officers and enlisted personnel. Assigned to the Malayan Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (MRNVR) headquartered in Singapore, the first Panglima was later sunk in February 1942 while evacuating British and Australian troops during World War II.[3]

A second Panglima 90 foot (27 m) motor fishing vessel was launched in the United Kingdom on 5 September 1944, but upon its transfer to the MRNVR in 1948, proved unsuited for tropical waters and began deteriorating rapidly. It was decided to replace the ship entirely rather than refit her.[3]

Construction

The keel laying for a new ship took place in 1954 at a United Engineers Ltd shipyard.[4] In October 1955, it was announced that the new ship would be launched in December of that year.[5] Construction progressed throughout 1955 and the ship was scheduled to be commissioned in March 1956, though this was delayed. The ship cost $1 million.[6]

The ship launching ceremony for HMS Panglima took place at 11 am, 14 January 1956, at Tanjong Rhu Dockyard.[7] Royal Malayan Navy sailors formed a guard of honour welcoming Governor of Singapore Sir Robert Black and his wife Lady Anne Black. Religious leaders of Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Christianity blessed the ship. Shortly afterward, Lady Black launched the ship in accordance with naval tradition by shattering a champagne bottle upon the bow, and Panglima slid into the waters to the fanfare of music. During the entire event, about 350 United Engineers workers who had built the ship protested outside the gates demanding for higher wages, though they did not disrupt the ceremony.[8] Sea trials commenced in March and Panglima was commissioned in May.[4][8]

Panglima's hull consisted of teak and hardwood from the Malayan and Thai rainforests, coupled with a steel and light alloy.[9] The light alloy superstructure enabled greater ship stability and reduced the overall displacement of the vessel. As aluminum surfaces required less repainting than steel, the cost of maintenance was also reduced. Such innovations were already widely practiced in other countries but Panglima was nevertheless regarded as a milestone of the Malayan shipbuilding industry.[10] Lieutenant Commander Fleming called the ship "comparable to the most modern craft of her type in the Royal Navy".[11]

Operational career

Royal Navy service

HMS Tactician conducted an exercise with HMS Panglima in September 1960

In November 1956, Panglima escorted the Royal Yacht Britannia as the latter proceeded to Langkawi and Port Swettenham (today Port Klang). As Panglima had departed Singapore hastily to rendezvous the yacht, the crew had forgotten to restock supplies. The Duke of Edinburgh gifted the ships' company six cartons of matchsticks after an officer declined a cigarette during a cocktail party onboard Britannia.[12]

Under the command of Lieutenant Commander J.S. Macintye, Panglima sailed to Penang on 12 January 1957 as part of a routine cruise.[13] In April 1957, Panglima visited Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam as part of a goodwill visit. The visit coincided with Queen Elizabeth II's birthday; Panglima and other Republic of Vietnam Navy ships fired a 21-gun salute at noon in her honour on 23 April. The ship also hosted the South Vietnamese vice president Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ and Navy chief Lê Quang Mỹ.[14] She returned to Singapore on 29 April.[15]

As a training ship, Panglima embarked three recruits from the Women's Auxiliary Naval Service (SWANS) and 14 other ratings from the Malayan and Fijian royal naval reserves in April 1958.[16]

On 22 February 1959, the Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip, who was also Admiral of the Fleet, visited Singapore on an official royal tour. Panglima escorted his barge from the Royal Yacht Britannia as it made its way to Clifford Pier, with her crew lining the deck.[17] The prince departed Singapore on 25 February and Panglima accompanied astern of Britannia back out to sea.[18]

Panglima participated in a mock battle with the Royal Navy submarine HMS Tactician in September 1960, with the former asserting a sea denial stance against its adversary seeking to enter Singapore waters. Tactician repeatedly evaded detection until sunset, when Panglima established contact and fired "depth charges" and "won" the battle. It was the first exercise the ship had conducted with a submarine, lasting three hours.[19]

On 22 July 1961, Panglima hosted the Yang di-Pertuan Negara Yusof bin Ishak as he reviewed a naval parade put on by the Harbour Division of Singapore Customs. As Panglima sailed past the Customs fleet of speedboats and launches, they saluted the island's first native head of state by sounding their air horns.[20]

Malaysian service

The State of Singapore merged with Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak on 16 September 1963 to form Malaysia. On 22 September 1963, the Royal Navy officially handed over the Singapore division of the MRNVR to the Royal Malaysian Navy. HMS Panglima was recommissioned as KD Panglima (KD standing for Kapal Di-Raja, or "His Majesty's Ship"), and assigned to the Singapore Volunteer Force of the Royal Malaysian Navy.[4]

With the ongoing Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, Panglima was involved in patrolling the Singapore Strait against intrusions.[2] Under Lieutenant Andy Miller, she was involved with a minor skirmish with Indonesian custom boats and torpedo boats in 1965. Radioing the naval headquarters for assistance, the standoff lasted seven minutes until British and Australian aircraft arrived overhead with a British frigate, resulting in the Indonesians retreating.[21]

Singaporean service

External image
image icon Panglima flying the new naval ensign on 5 May 1967
National Archives of Singapore

On 9 August 1965, Singapore separated from Malaysia to form a sovereign republic. KD Panglima was the first of three ships to be handed over to Singapore, and recommissioned as RSS Panglima (RSS standing for Republic of Singapore Ship) on 1 January 1966.[2][22] On 1 February, the Singapore Volunteer Force was transferred to the republic's Ministry of the Interior and Defence.[4]

Under the command of Lieutenant Roland Vivian Simon in 1967, Panglima came across a bumboat being shot at by an Indonesian customs boat, off the island of Pulau Sekang (today part of Pulau Semakau). Panglima opened fire on the custom boat's wheelhouse and radar, successfully forcing it to retreat.[21]

With the fall of Saigon in 1975, Vietnamese boat people began entering Singapore waters. Under the command of Captain Ernest H Wickramsingh, Panglima was the first ship to encounter the arrivals and subsequently remained at sea for 23 days during Operation Thunderstorm, past her regular two to three day patrols. Her crew boarded the incoming refugee boats to repair defects and provide supplies.[23]

Panglima became part of the Support Ship Squadron in August 1976. She subsequently underwent a major refit in November 1981 which included providing her bridge with air-conditioning by enclosing it, with the refit being completed in March 1982. The Midshipman School took over the ship in 1983 and thereafter used it exclusively as a training ship.[24]

Decommissioning

External image
image icon Panglima on the day prior to her decommissioning
National Archives of Singapore

Panglima was the first RSN ship to be granted a formal decommissioning ceremony. On 9 July 1991, following 35 years of active service across three navies, Panglima was decommissioned in a ceremony officiated by Chief of Navy Commodore Teo Chee Hean held at Brani Naval Base. A minute of silence was observed one minute before sunset, upon which her flags and commissioning pennant were hauled down accompanied by the national anthem. Her final commanding officer, Captain Harry Wee handed the flags to the chief of navy.[24]

While the Ministry of Defence initially considered preserving her as a museum ship, the cost of restoration was estimated to be S$4 million (US$2.32 million) and thereafter S$300,000 (US$173,656.33) per year. The ship was subsequently sold at auction for S$1,300 (US$798.05) to New West Coast Pte Ltd on 3 April 1992.[25]

Legacy

The ship's name was transferred to the School of Naval Training and later RSS Panglima-Changi Naval Training Base (CNTB).[24][26] The CNTB was later renamed the Institute of Maritime Operations & Systems (IMOS) and subsequently the Naval Military Experts Institute (NMI) on 12 July 2013, though it's still referred to as RSS Panglima.[27][28]

The ship's bell, helms, and 40mm Bofors main gun are on display in the Navy museum within Changi Naval Base.[29]

References

  1. ^ "Yet another Warrior for the Navy". The Straits Times. 5 January 1956. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  2. ^ a b c "Panglima's History". The New Paper. 3 April 1992.
  3. ^ a b "RSS Panglima - Inshore Patrol Boat". GlobalSecurity. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d "History of Royal Malaysian Navy". Retired Malaysian Naval Officers Association. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  5. ^ "Lady Black to launch $1m. warship". The Singapore Free Press. 14 October 1955. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  6. ^ "Volunteers to get $1mil. ship". The Straits Times. 28 December 1955. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  7. ^ "New vessel for Singapore". Indian Daily Mail. 5 January 1956.
  8. ^ a b "Million-dollar sub-chaser launched in Singapore". The Straits Times. 15 January 1956. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  9. ^ "From wooden boats to customisable warships: The evolution of Singapore's navy". CNA. 5 May 2017. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  10. ^ "Milestone in Shipbuilding". Singapore Standard. 17 January 1956.
  11. ^ "'Made in Singapore' trip for Navy's new training craft". The Straits Times. 26 January 1956. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  12. ^ "With love from the Duke—six cartons of matches for crew". The Straits Times. 3 November 1956. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  13. ^ "Training ship for Penang". The Straits Times. 11 January 1957. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  14. ^ "Goodwill visit to Saigon..." The Singapore Free Press. 2 May 1957. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  15. ^ "Panglima returns on happy note". The Straits Times. 29 April 1957. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  16. ^ Baptista, Esme (20 April 1958). "Training to be sailors on board the Panglima". The Straits Times. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  17. ^ "Thousands at waterfront to cheer him". The Straits Times. 23 February 1959. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  18. ^ "Splendid scene at harbour as Prince Philip ends visit to Singapore and sails for Kuching". The Straits Times. 26 February 1959. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  19. ^ Khoo, Alan (1 October 1960). "MRNVR ratings sink 'enemy' submarine". The Singapore Free Press. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  20. ^ "Review of Customs..." The Straits Times (23 July 1961). Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  21. ^ a b Republic of Singapore Navy 2017, p. 34.
  22. ^ "Milestones of the RSN: 1967 to 2017". TODAY. 6 May 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  23. ^ Ryan, Jonathan (2015). "SAF50: The RSN through the years". Navy News (1/2015): 11.
  24. ^ a b c Pereira, Matthew (10 July 1991). "Navy bids farewell to a faithful ship". The Straits Times.
  25. ^ "Only $1,300 for historic ship". New Paper. 4 April 1992.
  26. ^ "2004 – Changi Naval Base". Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 29 September 2006. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
  27. ^ "Singapore Navy Marks Another Milestone in Its Training Transformation". Naval Today. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  28. ^ Loh, Victor (1 May 2017). "PM Lee to commission littoral warship as S'pore Navy marks 50th anniversary". The Straits Times. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  29. ^ "Navy Museum". Republic of Singapore Navy. Retrieved 29 August 2021.

Primary sources cited