W i n e

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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermentation of grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Although fruits other than grapes can also be fermented, the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, apple wine) and are known as fruit wine (or country wine). Others, such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than wine; ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these cases, the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than the production process. The commercial use of the word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast which consume the sugars found in the grapes and convert them into alcohol. Various varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the types of wine produced.

Wine stems from an extended and rich history dating back about 8,000 years and is thought to have originated in present-day Georgia or Iran. Wine is thought to have appeared in Europe about 6,500 years ago in present-day Bulgaria and Greece and was very common in ancient Greece and Rome; the Greek god Dionysos, and his Roman counterpart Liber represented wine. Wine continues to play a role in religious ceremonies, such as Kiddush in Judaism and the Eucharist in Christianity.


The Wine WikiProject

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Some Wikipedians have formed a project to better present and organize information in articles related to Wine. This project contains their suggestions; it is hoped that this collaboration will help to focus the efforts of other Wikipedians on the subject of wine. If you wish to learn more about wine and get involved, please visit the Wine Wikiproject page to see how you can help!

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Vineyards around the town of Barolo
Italian wine is wine produced in Italy, a country which is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in the country long before the Romans started developing their own vineyards in the second century BC. Roman grape-growing and winemaking was prolific and well-organized, pioneering large-scale production and storage techniques like barrel-making and bottling. Two thousand years later, Italy remains one of the world's foremost producers, responsible for approximately one-fifth of world wine production in 2005.

Wine is a popular drink in Italy. Grapes are grown in almost every part of Italy, with more than 1 million vineyards under cultivation. In some places the vines are trained along low supports. In others they climb as slender saplings.

Most wine-making in Italy is done in modern wineries. However, villagers who make wine for their own use sometimes still tread the grapes with their bare feet, until the juice is squeezed out. They believe this ancient method still makes the best wine.



Selected person

Jean-Louis Vignes
B. April 9,1780 – d. January 17, 1862

Jean-Louis Vignes, or as he was known to his Spanish and Mexican neighbors, "Don Luis del Aliso", was a French settler to the Los Angeles area during the Mexican era. He was the first commercial wine maker in California and one of the first men to import and plant European Vitis vinifera grapes in the state. A skilled cooper by trade and an adventurer and entrepreneur by choice, he arrived in the Sandwich Islands on July 6, 1827 from Béguey, a village downriver from Cadillac, Gironde, France. After losing his business in Honolulu, he sailed to California and landed at El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Angeles de la Porciúncula in 1831. Upon his arrival, he bought 104 acres of land located between the original Pueblo and the banks of the Los Angeles river. Vignes proceeded to plant vines and to build a winery. Unhappy with the quality of the local Mission grapes, he imported Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc vines from Bordeaux In 1834, Vignes also planted one of the first orange groves in the Los Angeles area. By 1849, El Aliso, as Vignes' property was called, was the most extensive vineyard in California. Vignes owned over 40,000 vines and produced 150,000 bottles, or 1000 barrels, per year. In 1850, Vignes was the largest wine producer in California.



Selected winery

Screaming Eagle Winery and Vineyards is a California wine estate producing limited amounts of varietal wine. The winery is located in Oakville, California, north of the town of Napa in the Napa Valley, and their product has risen to the status of "cult wine".

Jean Phillips, a former real estate agent, bought the 57 acres (23 ha) vineyard in 1986 which was planted to produce a mix of varieties, most of which Phillips sold to various Napa wineries. With all white varieties but for 1-acre (0.40 ha), approximately 80 vines of Cabernet Sauvignon, Philips sought the opinions of Robert Mondavi Winery staffmembers on the commercial potential of her wine before hiring Richard Peterson as a consultant, and subsequently met Peterson's daughter, Heidi Peterson Barrett, who became her winemaker.

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Selected grape

Ripe Sauvignon blanc grapes
Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. The grape gets its name from the French word sauvage ("wild") and blanc ("white") due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in western France. It is now planted in many of the world's wine regions, producing a crisp, dry, and refreshing white varietal wine. Conversely, the grape is also a component of the famous dessert wines from Sauternes and Barsac. Sauvignon blanc is widely cultivated in France, Australia, New Zealand, California, and South America.

Depending on climate, the flavor can range from aggressively grassy to sweetly tropical. Wine experts have used the phrase "crisp, elegant, and fresh" as a favorable description of Sauvignon blanc from the Loire Valley and New Zealand.Sauvignon blanc, when slightly chilled, pairs well with fish or cheese, particularly Chèvre. It is also known as one of the few wines that can pair well with sushi.

Along with Riesling, Sauvignon blanc was one of the first fine wines to be bottled with a screwcap in commercial quantities, especially by New Zealand producers. The wine is usually consumed young, as it does not particularly benefit from aging. Dry and sweet white Bordeaux, typically made with Sauvignon blanc as a major component, is the one exception.

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Selected quote

Good wine is a necessity of life for me.
— Thomas Jefferson


Did you know...

...that spinning cones are sometimes used to lower the alcohol level of wine made from grapes with a high sugar content?
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Grapevine during flowering
Credit: Andy Melton

Grapevine during flowering


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The entire subject and Wikipedia's coverage of it is intended to be summarized in the Outline of wine. It in turn is part of Wikipedia's outline system which is one of Wikipedia's main contents systems.

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While analyzing the outline, please answer the following questions (and fix the outline as needed):

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The overall purpose of the outline is to help readers comprehend the subject by showing what belongs to it, and within the subject what belongs to what.

The outline is a taxonomy of the subject, and also serves as a table of contents and navigation aid to browse Wikipedia's articles (and article sections) about the subject.

It is also a useful tool for the WikiProject to analyze, plan, develop, and revise wine-related material. It is a hub from which to organize related topics.

It was built as a "reverse outline", a structural model of an existing work, which in addition to being a summary of the work, can reveal the gaps and other weaknesses for revision purposes.

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Categories

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The following entries are categories relating to Wine:

Wine


Wine Lists

Topics relating to Wine

AppellationOenologyWineryWinemakingWine tastingVintageVinyardViticulture
Wine styles Red/WhiteRosé/BlushSparklingDessertFortifiedFruitIce Wine
Notable varietals AlbariñoChardonnayChenin blancGewürztraminerGrüner veltlinerMuscatPinot blancPinot grisRiesling
Sauvignon blancSémillonSilvanerViognierBarberaCabernet FrancCabernet SauvignonCarignaneDolcetto
GamayGrenacheMalbecMerlotMourvèdreNebbioloPetite Sirah/DurifPetit VerdotPinot noirPinotage
SangioveseSyrah/ShirazTempranilloZinfandel
Notable regions BordeauxBurgundyCaliforniaChampagneDouroMoselRheinhessenRhôneRiojaTuscany
Notable nations ArgentinaAustraliaChileFranceGermanyItalyPortugalSpainSouth AfricaUnited States of America


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