Jacksonville, Florida
City of Jacksonville
Top, left to right: Downtown Jacksonville, Jacksonville Skyway, Florida Theatre, Dames Point Bridge, TIAA Bank Field, Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center, Hemming Park, statue in Memorial Park
Official seal of Jacksonville, Florida
Seal
Nickname(s): 
"Jax", "The River City", "J-ville", "The Bold New City of the South", "Duval"
Motto(s): 
Where Florida Begins, It's easier here
Location within Duval County
Location within Duval County
Jacksonville is located in Florida
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Location within Florida
Jacksonville is located in the United States
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Location within the United States
Jacksonville is located in North America
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Location within North America
Coordinates: 30°20′13″N 81°39′41″W / 30.33694°N 81.66139°W / 30.33694; -81.66139Coordinates: 30°20′13″N 81°39′41″W / 30.33694°N 81.66139°W / 30.33694; -81.66139[1]
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountyDuval
Founded1822
Incorporated1832
Consolidated[2]1968
Named forAndrew Jackson
Government
 • TypeStrong Mayor–Council
 • BodyJacksonville City Council
 • MayorLenny Curry (R)
Area
 • Total874.67 sq mi (2,265.39 km2)
 • Land747.48 sq mi (1,935.97 km2)
 • Water127.19 sq mi (329.42 km2)
Elevation16 ft (5 m)
Population
 • Total821,784
 • Estimate 
(2019)[6]
911,507
 • Rank1st in Florida
12th in United States
 • Density1,219.44/sq mi (470.83/km2)
 • Urban
1,065,219 (US: 40th)
 • Metro
1,504,980 (US: 39th)
 • CSA
1,631,488 (US: 34th)
DemonymsJacksonvillian, Jaxson[7][8]
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
32099, 32201–32212, 32214–32241, 32244–32247, 32250, 32254–32260, 32266, 32267, 32277, 32290
Area code(s)904
FIPS code12-35000
GNIS feature ID0295003[9]
AirportJacksonville International Airport
Interstateslink = Interstate 10 in Florida link = Interstate 95 in Florida link = Interstate 295 (Florida)
WaterwaysSt. Johns River, Fall Creek, Arlington River
WebsiteCity of Jacksonville

Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States.[10][11] It is the seat of Duval County,[12] with which the city government consolidated in 1968. Consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population within the city limits. As of 2019, Jacksonville's population was estimated to be 911,507.[13] The Jacksonville metropolitan area has a population of 1,523,615 and is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Florida.[14]

Jacksonville is centered on the banks of the St. Johns River in the First Coast region of northeast Florida, about 25 miles (40 km) south of the Georgia state line and 328 miles (528 km) north of Miami.[15] The Jacksonville Beaches communities are along the adjacent Atlantic coast. The area was originally inhabited by the Timucua people, and in 1564 was the site of the French colony of Fort Caroline, one of the earliest European settlements in what is now the continental United States. Under British rule, a settlement grew at the narrow point in the river where cattle crossed, known as Wacca Pilatka to the Seminole and the Cow Ford to the British. A platted town was established there in 1822, a year after the United States gained Florida from Spain; it was named after Andrew Jackson, the first military governor of the Florida Territory and seventh President of the United States.

Harbor improvements since the late 19th century have made Jacksonville a major military and civilian deep-water port. Its riverine location facilitates Naval Station Mayport, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, the U.S. Marine Corps Blount Island Command, and the Port of Jacksonville, Florida's third largest seaport.[16] Jacksonville's military bases and the nearby Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay form the third largest military presence in the United States.[17] Significant factors in the local economy include services such as banking, insurance, healthcare and logistics. As with much of Florida, tourism is important to the Jacksonville area, particularly tourism related to golf.[18][19] People from Jacksonville may be called "Jacksonvillians" or "Jaxsons" (also spelled "Jaxons").[7][8]

History

Early history

Replica of Jean Ribault's column claiming Florida for France in 1562

The area of the modern city of Jacksonville has been inhabited for thousands of years. On Black Hammock Island in the national Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, a University of North Florida team discovered some of the oldest remnants of pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BC.[20]

In the 16th century, the beginning of the historical era, the region was inhabited by the Mocama, a coastal subgroup of the Timucua people. At the time of contact with Europeans, all Mocama villages in present-day Jacksonville were part of the powerful chiefdom known as the Saturiwa, centered around the mouth of the St. Johns River.[21] One early French map shows a village called Ossachite at the site of what is now downtown Jacksonville; this may be the earliest recorded name for that area.[22]

In 1562, French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault charted the St. Johns River, calling it the River of May because that was the month of his discovery. Ribault erected a stone column at his landing site near the river's mouth, claiming the newly discovered land for France.[23] In 1564, René Goulaine de Laudonnière established the first European settlement on the St. Johns River, Fort Caroline, near the main village of the Saturiwa.

Philip II of Spain ordered Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to protect the interests of Spain by attacking the French at Fort Caroline. On September 20, 1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Augustine attacked Fort Caroline, and killed nearly all the French soldiers defending it.[24] The Spanish renamed the fort as San Mateo and, following the expulsion of the French, St. Augustine became the most important European settlement in Florida. The location of Fort Caroline is subject to debate, but a reconstruction of the fort was established in 1964 along the St. Johns River.[25]

Northeast Florida showing Cow Ford (center) from Bernard Romans' 1776 map of Florida

Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763 after its victory against the French in the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War on the North American front). The British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia. The road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British called the Cow Ford; these names reflected the use of the ford for moving cattle across the river there.[26][27][28]

The British introduced the cultivation of sugar cane, indigo and fruits as commodity crops, in addition to exporting lumber. These crops were labor-intensive and the British imported more enslaved Africans to work the plantations that were developed. The planters in northeastern Florida began to prosper economically.[29]

After being defeated in the American Revolutionary War, Britain returned control of this territory to Spain in 1783. The settlement at the Cow Ford continued to grow.

Founding and 19th century

Section of a light battery by the St. Johns River during the Civil War

After Spain ceded the Florida Territory to the United States in 1821, American settlers on the north side of the Cow Ford decided to plan a town, laying out the streets and plats. They named the town Jacksonville, after celebrated war hero and first Territorial Governor (later U.S. President) Andrew Jackson. Led by Isaiah D. Hart, residents wrote a charter for a town government, which was approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832.

During the American Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle being shipped from Florida to feed the Confederate forces. The city was blockaded by Union forces, who gained control of nearby Fort Clinch. Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville proper, the city changed hands several times between Union and Confederate forces. In the Skirmish of the Brick Church in 1862, Confederates won their first victory in the state.[30] However, Union forces captured a Confederate position at the Battle of St. Johns Bluff, and occupied Jacksonville in 1862. Slaves escaped to freedom in Union lines. In February 1864 Union forces left Jacksonville and confronted a Confederate Army at the Battle of Olustee, going down to defeat.

Union forces retreated to Jacksonville and held the city for the remainder of the war. In March 1864 a Confederate cavalry confronted a Union expedition in the Battle of Cedar Creek. Warfare and the long occupation left the city disrupted after the war.[31]

During Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, Jacksonville and nearby St. Augustine became popular winter resorts for the rich and famous. Visitors arrived by steamboat and later by railroad. President Grover Cleveland attended the Sub-Tropical Exposition in the city on February 22, 1888, during his trip to Florida.[32] This highlighted the visibility of the state as a worthy place for tourism. The city's tourism, however, was dealt major blows in the late 19th century by yellow fever outbreaks. Extending the Florida East Coast Railway further south drew visitors to other areas. From 1893 to 1938, Jacksonville was the site of the Florida Old Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Home; it operated a nearby cemetery.[33]

20th and 21st centuries

1900 to 1939

Ruins of the courthouse and armory from the Great Fire of 1901

On May 3, 1901, downtown Jacksonville was ravaged by a fire that started as a kitchen fire. Spanish moss at a nearby mattress factory was quickly engulfed in flames and enabled the fire to spread rapidly. In merely eight hours, it swept through 146 city blocks, destroyed over 2,000 buildings, left about 10,000 homeless and killed seven residents. The Confederate Monument in Hemming Park was one of the few landmarks to survive the fire. Governor William Sherman Jennings declared martial law and sent the state militia to maintain order; on May 17, municipal authority resumed.[34] It is said the glow from the flames could be seen in Savannah, Georgia, and the smoke plumes seen in Raleigh, North Carolina. Known as the "Great Fire of 1901", it was one of the worst disasters in Florida history and the largest urban fire in the southeastern United States. Architect Henry John Klutho was a primary figure in the reconstruction of the city.[35] The first multi-story structure built by Klutho was the Dyal-Upchurch Building in 1902.[36][37] The St. James Building, built on the previous site of the St. James Hotel that burned down, was built in 1912 as Klutho's crowning achievement.[38][39]

In the 1910s, northern film studios headquartered in New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago were attracted to Jacksonville's warm climate, exotic landscapes, excellent rail access, and cheap labor. Over the course of the decade, more than 30 silent film studios were established, earning Jacksonville the title of "Winter Film Capital of the World". However, the emergence of Hollywood as a major film production center ended the city's film industry. One movie studio site, Norman Studios, remains in Arlington; it has been converted to the Jacksonville Silent Film Museum at Norman Studios.[40]

Downtown Jacksonville in 1914

During this time, Jacksonville also became a banking and insurance center, with companies such as Barnett Bank, Atlantic National Bank, Florida National Bank, Prudential, Gulf Life, Afro-American Insurance, Independent Life and American Heritage Life thriving in the business district.

1940 to 1979

During World War II, The U.S. Navy became a major employer and economic force, constructing two Navy bases in the city, while the U.S. Marine Corps established Blount Island Command.

Jacksonville, like most large cities in the United States, suffered from negative effects of rapid urban sprawl after World War II. The construction of federal highways essentially subsidized development of suburban housing, and wealthier, better established residents moved to newer housing in the suburbs. After World War II, the government of the city of Jacksonville began to increase spending to fund new public building projects in the postwar economic boom. Mayor W. Haydon Burns' Jacksonville Story resulted in the construction of a new city hall, civic auditorium, public library and other projects that created a dynamic sense of civic pride. Development of suburbs led to a growing middle class who lived outside the urban core. An increasing proportion of residents in Jacksonville's urban core had a higher than average rate of poverty, especially as businesses and jobs also migrated to the suburbs.[41]

Given the postwar migration of residents, businesses, and jobs, the city's tax base declined. It had difficulty funding education, sanitation, and traffic control within the city limits. In addition, residents in unincorporated suburbs had difficulty obtaining municipal services, such as sewage and building code enforcement. In 1958, a study recommended that the city of Jacksonville begin annexing outlying communities in order to create the needed larger geographic tax base to improve services throughout the county. Voters outside the city limits rejected annexation plans in six referendums between 1960 and 1965.

In 1962, a federal court ordered the city to prepare a plan for integration of public schools, in accordance with the ruling of the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education (1954). A study found that schools were in poor condition and poorly equipped.

On December 29, 1963, the Hotel Roosevelt fire killed 22 people, the highest one-day death toll in Jacksonville.[42] On September 10, 1964, Hurricane Dora made landfall near St. Augustine, causing major damage to buildings in North Florida. Hurricane Dora was the first hurricane to make a direct hit to North Florida.[43]

In the mid-1960s, corruption scandals arose among city and some county officials, who were mainly part of a traditional white, conservative Democratic network that had dominated politics for the decades since the disenfranchisement of most African Americans since the turn of the century. After a grand jury was convened to investigate, 11 officials were indicted and more were forced to resign.

News of Jacksonville's consolidation from The Florida Times-Union

In 1963 the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools threatened to withdraw accreditation of area schools in a year because of "instructional deficiencies." But voters refused to approve new taxes to improve school conditions. In late 1963, Duval County was spending $299 per student compared to the state average spending of $372 per student. In 1964 all 15 of Duval County's public high schools lost their accreditation.[44] This added momentum to proposals for government reform.

Jacksonville Consolidation, led by J. J. Daniel and Claude Yates, began to win more support during this period, from both inner-city blacks, who wanted more involvement in government after passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that provided federal oversight and enforcement of their right to vote, and whites in the suburbs, who wanted more services and more control over the central city. Lower taxes, increased economic development, unification of the community, better public spending, and effective administration by a more central authority were all cited as reasons for a new consolidated government.

When a consolidation referendum was held in 1967, voters approved the plan. On October 1, 1968, the city and county governments merged to create the Consolidated City of Jacksonville. Fire, police, health & welfare, recreation, public works, and housing & urban development were all combined under the new government. In honor of the occasion, then-Mayor Hans Tanzler posed with actress Lee Meredith behind a sign marking the new border of the "Bold New City of the South" at Florida 13 and Julington Creek.[45] The consolidation created a 900-square-mile entity.

1980 to present

Friendship Fountain and view of downtown Jacksonville in 1982

Tommy Hazouri supported passage of environmental regulations and reduced pollution odor during his single term as mayor, which began in 1987.[46]

Ed Austin was elected as mayor in 1991. His most lasting contribution is the River City Renaissance program, a $235 million bond issued in 1993 by the city of Jacksonville which funded urban renewal and revamped the city's historic downtown neighborhoods. Austin oversaw the city's purchase and refurbishing of the St. James Building, which is now used as Jacksonville's city hall. He was mayor in 1993 when Jacksonville was awarded its National Football League franchise, the Jacksonville Jaguars.[47][48]

The Better Jacksonville Plan, promoted as a "blueprint for Jacksonville's future" and approved by Jacksonville voters in 2000, authorized a half-penny sales tax. This generated most of the revenue required for the $2.25 billion package of major projects, which have included road & infrastructure improvements, environmental preservation, targeted economic development, and new or improved public facilities.[49]

In 2005, Jacksonville hosted Super Bowl XXXIX, which was seen by an estimated 86 million viewers.[50]

The city has suffered damage in natural disasters. In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew caused major flooding and damage to Jacksonville, Jacksonville Beach, Atlantic Beach and Neptune Beach, the first such damage in the area since 2004.[51] In September 2017, Hurricane Irma caused record-breaking floods in Jacksonville, with a severity not seen since 1846.[52][53]

As has been typical of other metropolitan areas across the country, suburban growth has continued around Jacksonville, where large areas of land were available for development, drawing more residents, businesses and jobs from the city. This has resulted in further demographic changes. The city's largest ethnic group, non-Hispanic white,[41] declined from 75.8% of the population in 1970 to 55.1% by 2010.[54]

Geography

Cityscape

From left to right: Northbank Jacksonville skyline and the Main Street Bridge
From left to right: Southbank Jacksonville skyline and the Acosta Bridge

Topography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 874.3 square miles (2,264 km2), making Jacksonville the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States; of this, 86.66% (757.7 sq mi or 1,962 km2) is land and 13.34% (116.7 sq mi or 302 km2) is water. Jacksonville surrounds the town of Baldwin. Nassau County lies to the north, Baker County lies to the west, and Clay and St. Johns counties lie to the south; the Atlantic Ocean lies to the east, along with the Jacksonville Beaches. The city developed along both sides of the St. Johns River. The Trout River, a major tributary of the St. Johns River, is located entirely within Jacksonville.

Just south of Jacksonville and north of Saint Augustine is the boundary of where the Floridian Peninsula ends and Continental North America begins; Jacksonville is north of that line. While still in the North American Coastal plain, the topography begins to take on slight Piedmont characteristics. Like the Central Florida ridge and the Piedmont, the area begins sloping several miles inland. On the west side of Jacksonville, a series of low ridges predominate. The high point of Jacksonville rises to 190 feet above sea level on Trail Ridge, along the boundary with Baker County.

Soil composition is primarily sand and clay rather than limestone, so few sinkholes develop; however, deep, large diameter sinkholes do occur.[55]

Architecture

The architecture of Jacksonville varies in style. Few structures in the city center predate the Great Fire of 1901.[56] The city is home to one of the largest collections of Prairie School style buildings outside the Midwest.[57] Following the Great Fire of 1901, Henry John Klutho would come to influence generations of local designers with his works by both the Chicago School, championed by Louis Sullivan, and the Prairie School of architecture, popularized by Frank Lloyd Wright. Jacksonville is also home to a notable collection of Mid-Century modern architecture.[58] Local architects Robert C. Broward, Taylor Hardwick, and William Morgan adapted a range design principles, including International style, Brutalism, Futurism and Organicism, all applied with an American interpretation generally referred to today as Mid-century modern design.[58] The architecture firms of Reynolds, Smith & Hills (RS&H)[59] and Kemp, Bunch & Jackson (KBJ) have also contributed a number of important works to the city's modern architectural movement.

Jacksonville's early predominant position as a regional center of business left an indelible mark on the city's skyline. Many of the earliest skyscrapers in the state were constructed in Jacksonville, dating to 1902.[60] The city last held the state height record from 1974 to 1981.[61] The tallest building in Downtown Jacksonville's skyline is the Bank of America Tower, constructed in 1990 as the Barnett Center. It has a height of 617 ft (188 m) and includes 42 floors.[62][63] Other notable structures include the 37-story Wells Fargo Center (with its distinctive flared base making it the defining building in the Jacksonville skyline),[64][65] originally built in 1972–74 by the Independent Life and Accident Insurance Company, and the 28-floor Riverplace Tower. When this tower was completed in 1967, it was the tallest precast, post-tensioned concrete structure in the world.[66][67]

Neighborhoods

There are more than 500 neighborhoods within Jacksonville's vast area.[68] These include Downtown Jacksonville and its surrounding neighborhoods, including LaVilla, Brooklyn, Riverside and Avondale, Springfield, Eastside, Mandarin, and San Marco.[69] Additionally, greater Jacksonville is traditionally divided into several amorphous areas, comprising large parts of Duval County. These are Northside, Westside, Southside, and Arlington, as well as the Jacksonville Beaches.[70]

There are four municipalities that have retained their own governments since consolidation; these are Baldwin and the three Jacksonville Beaches towns of Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and Jacksonville Beach.[71] Four of Jacksonville's neighborhoods, Avondale, Ortega, Springfield, and Riverside, have been identified as U.S. historic districts and are in the National Register of Historic Places.[72]

Climate

Jacksonville
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
3.3
 
 
65
41
 
 
3.2
 
 
68
45
 
 
4
 
 
74
50
 
 
2.6
 
 
79
55
 
 
2.5
 
 
86
63
 
 
6.5
 
 
90
70
 
 
6.6
 
 
92
73
 
 
6.8
 
 
91
73
 
 
8.2
 
 
87
70
 
 
3.9
 
 
80
61
 
 
2.1
 
 
74
51
 
 
2.8
 
 
67
44
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: [73]

According to the Köppen climate classification, Jacksonville has a humid subtropical climate, with hot humid summers, and warm to mild and drier winters. Seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the warmest months from May through September, when brief but intense downpours with thunder and lightning are common, while the driest months are from November through April. Rainfall averages around 52 inches (1,300 mm) a year.[74]

Normal monthly mean temperatures range from 53.1 °F (11.7 °C) in January to 82.3 °F (27.9 °C) in July; high temperatures average 64 to 92 °F (18 to 33 °C) throughout the year.[73] High heat indices are common for the summer months in the area, with indices above 110 °F (43.3 °C) possible. The highest temperature recorded was 104 °F (40 °C) on July 28, 1872 and July 11, 1879 .[75]

The city of Jacksonville averages only about 10 to 15 nights at or below freezing. Such cold weather is usually short lived.[76] The coldest temperature recorded at Jacksonville International Airport was 7 °F (−14 °C) on January 21, 1985. Jacksonville has recorded three days with measurable snow since 1911, most recently a one-inch (2.5 cm) snowfall in December 1989 [77] and flurries in December 2010.[78]

Jacksonville has only received one direct hit from a hurricane since 1871. The rarity of direct strikes is attributed to chance.[79] However, the city has experienced hurricane or near-hurricane conditions more than a dozen times due to storms crossing the state from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean, or passing to the north or south in the Atlantic and brushing past the area.[80] The strongest effect on Jacksonville was from Hurricane Dora in 1964, the only recorded storm to hit the First Coast with sustained hurricane-force winds. The eye crossed St. Augustine with winds that had just barely diminished to 110 mph (180 km/h), making it a strong Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. In 1979, Hurricane David passed offshore by 40 miles (64 kilometres), bringing winds around 95 mph (150 km/h).[80] Hurricane Floyd in 1999 caused damage mainly to Jacksonville Beach; the Jacksonville Beach pier was severely damaged and later demolished.

In 2004, Jacksonville was inundated by Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Jeanne, which made landfall south of the area, and suffered minor damage from Tropical Storm Bonnie, which spawned a minor tornado.[81] Jacksonville also suffered damage from 2008's Tropical Storm Fay which crisscrossed the state, bringing parts of Jacksonville under darkness for four days. Fay damaged, but did not destroy, the Jacksonville Beach pier that had been rebuilt after Floyd. On May 28, 2012, Jacksonville was hit by Tropical Storm Beryl, packing winds up to 70 mph (110 km/h) which made landfall near Jacksonville Beach. Hurricane Matthew passed 37 mi (60 km) to the east with winds of 110 miles per hour. It caused storm surge, extensive flooding of the Atlantic Ocean and St. Johns River, and wind damage; the storm knocked out power for 250,000 people.[79][80] In 2017, Hurricane Irma passed 75 mi (121 km) to the west with 65 mph (100 km/h) winds.[80] It caused severe storm surge and flooding, passing the flood record of Hurricane Dora in 1964.[79]

Parks

The City of Jacksonville has a unique park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, Florida State Parks and the City of Jacksonville Department of Parks and Recreation. Jacksonville operates the largest urban park system in the United States, providing facilities and services at more than 337 locations on more than 80,000 acres (320 km2) located throughout the city.[84] A number of parks provide access for people to boat, swim, fish, sail, jetski, surf and waterski.

National parks

The Timucuan Preserve is a U.S. National Preserve comprising over 46,000 acres (19,000 ha) of wetlands and waterways. It includes natural and historic areas such as the Fort Caroline National Memorial and the Kingsley Plantation, the oldest standing plantation in the state.

State parks

There are several state parks within the city limits of Jacksonville, these include Amelia Island State Park, Big Talbot Island State Park, Fort George Island Cultural State Park, George Crady Bridge Fishing Pier State Park, Little Talbot Island State Park, Pumpkin Hill Creek Preserve State Park and Yellow Bluff Fort Historic State Park.

City parks

  • Confederate Park is a public park on the southern bounds of the historic neighborhood of Springfield, and is part of a network of parks that parallel Hogans Creek. The park opened in 1907 as Dignan Park, named for a former chairman of the city's Board of Public Works. In 1914, the park hosted the annual reunion of the United Confederate Veterans, a gathering of former Confederate soldiers. Five months after the reunion the city renamed the park "Confederate Park." A Confederate monument was erected in 1915 honoring the Women of the Southland.[85]
View of downtown, as seen from Confederate Park
  • Hemming Park is a 1.54-acre (6,200 m2) public park in the heart of the government center in downtown. Originally a village green, it was the first and is the oldest park in the city. The area was established as a public square in 1857 by Isaiah Hart, founder of Jacksonville. The first Wednesday of every month, Hemming Park is converted into the centerpiece of Jacksonville's Downtown Art Walk. The third Thursday of every month Hemming Park hosts a night market called Jaxsons Night Market.[88]
  • Klutho Park is an 18.34-acre (74,200 m2) public park, between downtownand the historic neighborhood of Springfield. It is part of a network of parks that parallel Hogans Creek, Klutho Park being the largest. Created between 1899 and 1901 on land donated by the Springfield Company. The park also housed the City's first zoo, opening at the park in 1914. The Hogans Creek Improvement Project of 1929–30, designed by architect Henry J. Klutho, turned much of the park grounds into a Venetian-style promenade.[89]
  • Jacksonville-Baldwin Rail Trail is a 14.5-mile (23.3 km) Rail Trail that extends northwest to Baldwin, Florida. It includes three separate paths; a multi-use asphalt trail for hiking, jogging, in-line skating or cycling; an off-road bike trail; and a horseback riding trail.[90]
  • Jessie Ball DuPont Park is a 7-acre (2.8 ha) park, home to Treaty Oak, a massive 250-year-old tree in the Southbank.[91]
  • Metropolitan Park is a 32-acre (130,000 m2) waterfront park on the St. Johns River, in the Sports Complex area of downtown. The multi-purpose facility contains an exhibition area, picnic and playground area, and a performance pavilion which has a capacity of 10,000 persons.[92]