House of Hanover
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover.svg
Parent house
Country
Ethnicity German
Founded 1635 – George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Current head Ernst August, Prince of Hanover
Titles etc.
Deposition

The House of Hanover (German: Haus Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians (/ˌhænəˈvɪəriənz, -n-, -ˈvɛər-/), is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th through 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. At Victoria's death in 1901, the throne of the United Kingdom passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The last reigning members of the House lost the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918 when Germany became a republic.

The formal name of the house was the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line.[1] The senior line of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, became extinct in 1884. The House of Hanover is now the only surviving branch of the House of Welf, which is the senior branch of the House of Este. The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover.

History

Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg

George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover.[2] When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the Principality of Calenberg and moved his residence to Hanover. His son, Christian Louis inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from George's brother. Calenberg and Lüneburg were then shared between George's sons until united in 1705 under his grandson, also called George, who subsequently became George I of Great Britain. All held the title Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. George died in 1641 and was succeeded by:

Legacy

Many towns and provinces across the British Empire were named after the ruling House of Hanover and its members, among them the U.S. state of Georgia, U.S. towns Hanover, New Hampshire, Hanover, Pennsylvania, Hanover Township, Jo Daviess County, Illinois, counties Hanover County, Virginia, Caroline County, Virginia, Brunswick County, Virginia, Brunswick County, North Carolina, places named Georgia in New Jersey, Vermont, Arkansas and South Dakota, seven towns in the U.S. and Canada named after Queen Charlotte, furthermore the Canadian province of New Brunswick and towns Hanover, Ontario, Guelph, Ontario, and Victoria, British Columbia, in South Africa the town Hanover, Northern Cape, in Australia the state Victoria (Australia) and the town Adelaide, in the UK six and in the US thirteen towns named Brunswick, furthermore one each in Australia and New Zealand, and worldwide more than fifty towns named Victoria. There are also numerous streets and squares, such as Hanover Square, Westminster, Hanover Square (Manhattan), Hanover Square, Syracuse or Queen Street, Brisbane with its intersections.

Georgian architecture gives distinction to the architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830 in most English-speaking countries.

See also

  • Georgian era for kings George I, II, III, IV
  • History of Hanover
  • List of British monarchs
    1. ^ "Royal Arms of Britain". Heraldica. Retrieved 10 May 2016. The House of Brunswick Luneburg being one of the most illustrious and most ancient in Europe, the Hanoverian branch having filled for more than a century one of the most distinguished thrones, its possessions being among the most considerable in Germany;
    2. ^ Orr, Clarissa Campbell, ed. (2002). Queenship in Britain 1660-1837: Royal Patronage, Court Culture and Dynastic Politics (1st ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719057694.:195
    3. ^ a b c Picknett, Lynn; Prince, Clive; Prior, Stephen; Brydon, Robert (2002), War of the Windsors: A Century of Unconstitutional Monarchy, Mainstream Publishing, ISBN 1-84018-631-3.
    4. ^ In 1801, the British and Irish kingdoms merged, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
    5. ^ Duggan, J. N. (2011). Sophia of Hanover: From Winter Princess to Heiress of Great Britain, 1630–1714. London: Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN 9780720614237. According to the Peace of Westphalia, the See of Osnabrück was to be held alternately by a Catholic and a Protestant incumbent; the Protestant bishop was to be a younger son of the Brunswick-Lüneburg family.
    6. ^ Viktoria Luise (Herzogin zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) (1977). The Kaiser's Daughter: Memoirs of H. R. H. Viktoria Luise, Duchess of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Princess of Prussia. Prenticse-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-514653-8.
    7. ^ Privately however the British Royal Family (of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, alias House of Windsor) continued to call their German branch the Cumberlands, for instance when Edward VIII described his visit to the family in Gmunden in a letter to his mother in 1937.
    8. ^ In 1919 royalty and nobility lost their privileges as such in Germany, hereditary titles thereafter being legally retained only as part of the surname, according to Article 109 the Weimar Constitution.
    9. ^ "In der Prinzenrolle". HAZ – Hannoversche Allgemeine.
    10. ^ Ernst August (geb.1954) Prinz von Hannover at welfen.de (German)
    11. ^ Attorney-General v HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover [1957] 1 All ER 49

    Further reading

    • Black, Jeremy. The Hanoverians: The History of a Dynasty (2004), 288 pp.
    • Black, Jeremy. "Georges I & II: Limited monarchs." History Today 53.2 (2003): 11+
    • Fraser, Flora. Princesses: The Six Daughters of George III. Knopf, 2005.
    • Plumb, J. H. The First Four Georges. Revised ed. Hamlyn, 1974.
    • Redman, Alvin. The House of Hanover. Coward-McCann, 1960.
    • Robertson, Charles. England under the Hanoverians (1911) online
    • Schweizer, Karl W., and Jeremy Black, eds. Politics and the Press in Hanoverian Britain (E. Mellon Press, 1989).
    • Simms, Brendan and Torsten Riotte, eds. The Hanoverian Dimension in British History, 1714–1837 (2009) online, focus on Hanover
    • Van der Kiste, John. George III’s Children. Sutton Publishing, 1992.

    Historiography

    • Bultmann, William A. "Early Hanoverian England (1714–1760): Some Recent Writings," in Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939 (Harvard University Press, 1966), pp 181–205
    • O’Gorman, Frank. “The Recent Historiography of the Hanoverian Regime.” Historical Journal 29#4 (1986): 1005-1020.
    • Snyder, Henry L. "Early Georgian England," in Richard Schlatter, ed., Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966 (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp 167 – 196, historiography

    External links

    House of Hanover
    Cadet branch of the House of Welf
    New title
    Duchy created from the
    stem duchy of Saxony
    Ruling house of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
    1235–1692
    Duchy raised to Electorate
    by Emperor Leopold I for aid
    given in the Nine Years' War 
    New title
    Duchy raised to Electorate
    Ruling house of the Electorate of Hanover
    1692–1803
    Electorate abolished
     Occupied by France in the Napoleonic Wars 
    Preceded by
    House of Stuart
    Ruling house of the Kingdom of Great Britain
    1714–1800
    Kingdoms merged by
    Acts of Union 1800
    Ruling house of the Kingdom of Ireland
    1714–1800
    New title
    Union of Great Britain and Ireland
    Ruling house of the United Kingdom
    1801–1901
    Succeeded by
    House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
    New title
    Electorate raised to Kingdom
    at the Congress of Vienna
    Ruling house of the Kingdom of Hanover
    1814–1866
    Kingdom abolished
     Annexed by Prussia in the
    Austro-Prussian War
     
    Preceded by
    House of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern
    Ruling house of the Duchy of Brunswick
    1913–1918
    Duchy abolished
     German Revolution after defeat in World War I