Hà Nội
From top, left to right: Skyline of west Hanoi, Turtle Tower, pilgrim boats toward Perfume Pagoda, St. Joseph's Cathedral, Hanoi Opera House, One Pillar Pagoda and Temple of Literature.
Official seal of Hanoi
The City for Peace (Thành phố vì hòa bình)[1]
The Capital of Thousand Years of Civilization (Thủ đô nghìn năm văn hiến)[2]
Hanoi is located in Vietnam
Location within Vietnam
Hanoi is located in Southeast Asia
Location within Southeast Asia
Coordinates: 21°01′42″N 105°51′15″E / 21.02833°N 105.85417°E / 21.02833; 105.85417Coordinates: 21°01′42″N 105°51′15″E / 21.02833°N 105.85417°E / 21.02833; 105.85417
Country Vietnam
RegionRed River Delta
Founded257 BC
Founded byAn Dương Vương
CapitalHoàn Kiếm
Subdivision12 urban districts, 17 rural districts, one town
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyHanoi People's Council [vi]
 • Secretary of the PartyĐinh Tiến Dũng
 • Chairman of People's CouncilNguyễn Ngọc Tuấn
 • Chairman of People's CommitteeChu Ngọc Anh
 • Capital City3,358.6 km2 (1,297 sq mi)
 • Urban
319.56 km2 (123.38 sq mi)
 • Metro
24,314.7 km2 (9,388.0 sq mi)
Highest elevation
1,296 m (4,252 ft)
 • Capital City8,053,663 (2nd)
 • Urban
 • Urban density14,708.8/km2 (38,096/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density662.1/km2 (1,715/sq mi)
Ethnic groups
 • Vietnamese[7]98.66%
 • Mường0.77%
 • Tày0.24%
 • Thái0.09%
 • Nùng0.08%
 • Others0.16%
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (ICT)
Postal code
Area codes24
ISO 3166 codeVN-HN
License plate29 – 33, 40
GRP (Nominal)2019[8]
– TotalUS$42.04 billion[9]
– Per capitaUS$5,196[9]
– GrowthIncrease 7.62%
International airportsNội Bài International Airport
Largest district by areaBa Vì District (423 km2)[10]
Largest district by populationHoàng Mai District (2019 census 506,347)[11]
Official nameCentral Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long – Hanoi
CriteriaCultural: (ii), (iii), (vi)
Inscription2010 (34th Session)
Area18.395 ha (45.46 acres)
Buffer zone108 ha (270 acres)

Hanoi (UK: /(ˌ)hæ-, həˈnɔɪ/ ha-, hə-NOY or US: /hɑː-/ hah-NOY; Vietnamese: Hà Nội [hàː nôjˀ] (About this soundlisten)) is the capital city of Vietnam in the north of Vietnam. It covers an area of 3,358.6 km2 (1,296.8 sq mi).[3] The second largest city in Vietnam, it consists of 12 urban districts, 1 district-leveled town and 17 rural districts. Located within the Red River Delta, Hanoi is the cultural and political centre of Vietnam.

Hanoi traced its history back to the third century BCE, when a portion of the modern-day city served as the capital of the historic Vietnamese nation of Âu Lạc. Following the collapse of Âu Lạc, the city was part of colonial China. In 1010, Vietnamese emperor Lý Thái Tổ established the capital of the imperial Vietnamese nation Đại Việt in modern-day central Hanoi, naming the city Thăng Long (literally "Ascending Dragon"). Thăng Long remained Đại Việt's political centre until 1802, when the Nguyễn dynasty, the last imperial Vietnamese dynasty, moved the capital to Huế. The city was renamed Hanoi in 1831, and served as the capital of French Indochina from 1902 to 1945. On 6 January 1946, the National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam designated Hanoi as the capital of the newly-independent country, which would last during the First Indochina War (1946–1954) and the Vietnam War (1955–1975). Hanoi has been the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam since 1976.

Hanoi hosts various venerable educational institutions and cultural venues of significance, including the Vietnam National University, the Mỹ Đình National Stadium, and the Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts. Amongst its achievements, it has a UNESCO World Heritage Site— The Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long, first constructed in 1011AD. Hanoi was the only Asia-Pacific locality to be granted the "City for Peace" title by the UNESCO on 16 July 1999, recognizing its contributions to the struggle for peace, its efforts to promote equality in the community, protect the environment, promote culture and education and care for younger generations. Hanoi joined UNESCO's Network of Creative Cities as a Design City on 31 October 2019, on the occasion of World Cities' Day.[12] The city has also hosted numerous international events, including APEC Vietnam 2006, 132nd Assembly of the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU-132), 2019 North Korea–United States Hanoi Summit, as well as the 2003 Southeast Asian Games, 2009 Asian Indoor Games, and the upcoming 2021 Southeast Asian Games.


Hanoi had various names throughout history.