RuPaul is a famous drag queen known for the series RuPaul's Drag Race.
Drag queens at 2012 Sydney Mardi Gras

A drag queen is a person, usually male, who uses drag clothing and makeup to imitate and often exaggerate female gender signifiers and gender roles for entertainment purposes. Historically, most drag queens have been men dressing as women. In modern times, drag queens are associated with gay men and gay culture, but they can be of any gender and sexual identity.

People partake in the activity of doing drag for reasons ranging from self-expression to mainstream performance. Drag shows frequently include lip-syncing, live singing, and dancing. They occur at events like gay pride parades and drag pageants and in venues such as cabarets and nightclubs. Drag queens vary by type, culture, and dedication, from professionals who star in films to people who do drag only occasionally.

Terminology, scope and etymology

The origin of the term drag is uncertain;[1] the first recorded use of drag in reference to actors dressed in women's clothing is from 1870.[2] For much of history, drag queens were men, but in more modern times, cisgender and trans women, as well as non-binary people, also perform as drag queens.[3][4][5][6] In a 2018 article, Psychology Today stated that drag queens are "most typically gay cisgender men (though there are many drag queens of varying sexual orientations and gender identities)".[7] Examples of trans female drag queens, sometimes called trans queens,[8] include Monica Beverly Hillz[3][4] and Peppermint.[5] Cisgender female drag queens are sometimes called faux queens or bioqueens, though both terms are problematic: faux carries the connotation that the drag is fake, and the use of bioqueen exclusively for cisgender females is a misnomer since trans female queens also have female bodies.[9][10] Drag queens' counterparts are drag kings: performers, usually women, who dress in exaggeratedly masculine clothing. Trans men who dress like drag kings are sometimes termed trans kings.

Female impersonator

4 Individuals portraying women
Drag queens walking in a parade in São Paulo, Brazil

Another term for a drag queen is female impersonator.[11] Female impersonation has been and continues to be illegal in some places, which inspired the drag queen José Sarria to hand out labels to his friends reading, "I am a boy", so he could not be accused of female impersonation.[12] American drag queen RuPaul once said, "I do not impersonate females! How many women do you know who wear seven-inch heels, four-foot wigs, and skintight dresses?" He also said, "I don't dress like a woman; I dress like a drag queen!"[13]

Alternative terms

Pabllo Vittar is a Brazilian drag queen, singer and songwriter.[14]

Some drag queens may prefer to be referred to as "she" while in drag and desire to stay completely in character.[15] Other drag performers, like RuPaul, seem to be completely indifferent to which pronoun is used to refer to them. In his words, "You can call me he. You can call me she. You can call me Regis and Kathie Lee; I don't care! Just so long as you call me."[16]

Drag queens are sometimes called transvestites, although that term also has many other connotations than the term drag queen and is not much favored by many drag queens themselves.[17] The term tranny has been adopted by some drag performers, notably RuPaul,[18] and the gay male community[19] in the United States, but it is considered offensive to most transgender and transsexual people.[20]

Many drag performers refer to themselves as drag artists, as opposed to drag queens, as some contemporary forms of drag have become nonbinary.[21][22]

Uncommon terms

In the drag queen world today, there is an ongoing debate about whether transgender drag queens are actually considered "Drag Queens". Some argue that, because a drag queen is defined as a man portraying a woman, transgender women cannot be drag queens. Drag Kings are biological females who assume a masculine aesthetic. However this is not always the case, because there are also biokings, bio-queens, and faux queens, which are people who perform their own biological sex through a heightened or exaggerated gender presentation.[23][24][25]

History of drag

America

First drag balls

The first person to describe himself as "the queen of drag" was William Dorsey Swann, born enslaved in Hancock, Maryland, who in the 1880s started also hosting drag balls in Washington, DC attended by other men who were former slaves, and often raided by the police, as documented in the newspapers.[26] In 1896, Swann was convicted and sentenced to 10 months in jail on the false charge of "keeping a disorderly house" (euphemism for running a brothel) and demanded a pardon from the president for holding a drag ball (the demand was denied).[26]

Eugene d'Ameli, a white man, dressed in blackface as an African-American woman for a minstrel show in the late 19th century

Minstrel shows

Development of the drag queen in the United States was influenced by the development of the blackface minstrel show.[27] Originally the performers would only mock African American men, but as time went on they found it amusing to mock African American femininity as well. They performed in comedic skits, dances, and "wench" songs.[28][28]

Vaudeville and female impersonators

Julian Eltinge as a female impersonator in the Fascinating Widow, early 1910s

The broad comedic stylings of the minstrel shows helped develop the vaudeville shows of the late 1800s to the early 1900s.[27] With this shift, the "wench players" became "prima donnas", and became more elegant and refined, while still retaining their comedic elements.[28] While the "wenches" were purely American creations, the "prima donnas" were inspired by both America and European cross-dressing shows, like Shakespearean actors and castrati.[28] With the United States shifting demographics, including the shift from farms to cities, Great Migration of African Americans, and an influx of immigrants, vaudeville's broad comedy and music expanded the audience from minstrelsy.[27]

With vaudeville becoming more popular, it allowed female impersonators to become popular as well. Many female impersonators started with low comedy in vaudeville and worked their way up to perform as the prima donna.[29] They were known to perform song and dance routines with multiple outfit changes.[27] In New York City, famous female impersonator Julian Eltinge found success, and he eventually made his way to the Broadway stage performing as a woman.[29] He published a magazine, Magazine and Beauty Hints (1913), which provided beauty and fashion tips, and he posed for corset and cosmetics advertisements.[27] Meanwhile, in San Francisco, Bothwell Browne was the top female impersonator of the West Coast. He performed at the Grand Opera House and Central Theater, among other venues, went on tour with United Vaudeville, and later appeared in the film Yankee Doodle in Berlin (1919), produced by Mack Sennett.[30]

At this time being a female impersonator was seen as something for the straight white male, and any deviation was punished.[27] Connection with sex work and homosexuality eventually lead to the decline of vaudeville during the Progressive Era.[27] Both the minstrelsy and vaudeville eras of female impersonation led to an association with music, dance, and comedy that still lasts today.[29]

Night clubs

In the early to mid-1900s, female impersonation had become tied to the LGBT community[dubious ] and thus criminality, so it had to change forms and locations.[27] It moved from being popular mainstream entertainment to something done only at night in disreputable areas, such as San Francisco's Tenderloin.[27] Here female impersonation started to evolve into what we today know as drag and drag queens.[31] Drag queens such as José Sarria[32] and Aleshia Brevard[33] first came to prominence in these clubs.[27] People went to these nightclubs to play with the boundaries of gender and sexuality and it became a place for the LGBT community, especially gay men, to feel accepted.[34] As LGBT culture has slowly become more accepted in American society, drag has also become more, though not totally, acceptable in today's society.[31]

Protests

The Cooper Donuts Riot was a May 1959 incident in Los Angeles in which drag queens, lesbians, transgender women, and gay men rioted; it was one of the first LGBT uprisings in the United States.[35]

The Compton's Cafeteria riot, which involved drag queens and others, occurred in San Francisco in 1966.[36] It marked the beginning of transgender activism in San Francisco.[36]

On March 17, 1968, in Los Angeles, to protest entrapment and harassment by the LAPD, two drag queens known as "The Princess" and "The Duchess" held a St. Patrick's Day party at Griffith Park, a popular cruising spot and a frequent target of police activity. More than 200 gay men socialized through the day.[37]

Drag queens were also involved in the Stonewall riots, a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the LGBT community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, located in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. The riots are widely considered to be the catalyst for the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.[38][39]

During the summer of 1976, a restaurant in Fire Island Pines, New York, denied entry to a visitor in drag named Terry Warren. When Warren's friends in Cherry Grove heard what had happened, they dressed up in drag, and, on July 4, 1976, sailed to the Pines by water taxi. This turned into a yearly event where drag queens go to the Pines, called the Invasion of the Pines.

Story time in libraries

In December 2015, Radar Productions and Michelle Tea developed the concept of Drag Queen Story Hour.[40] Launched at the San Francisco Public Library, Drag Queen Story Hour was adopted by the Brooklyn Public Library in the summer of 2016, and has since traveled to various libraries, museums, bookstores, and recreation centers, and parks across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.[41] Such events sometimes prompt opposition against the libraries and organizers.[42][43]

Canada

In the 1940s John Herbert, who sometimes competed in drag pageants, was the victim of an attempted robbery while he was dressed as a woman.[44][nb 1] His assailants falsely claimed that Herbert had solicited them for sex,[44] and Herbert was accused and convicted of indecency[44] under Canada's same-sex sexual activity law (which was not repealed until 1969).[citation needed] After being convicted, Herbert served time in a youth reformatory in Guelph, Ontario.[45][47][48][nb 2] Herbert later served another sentence for indecency at reformatory in Mimico.[44] Herbert wrote Fortune and Men's Eyes in 1964 based on his time behind bars.[48] He included the character of Queenie as an authorial self-insertion.[44]

In 1973 the first Canadian play about and starring a drag queen, Hosanna by Michel Tremblay, was performed at Théâtre de Quat'Sous in Montreal.[49]

In 1977 the Canadian film Outrageous!, starring drag queen Craig Russell, became one of the first gay-themed films to break out into mainstream theatrical release.

In 1980, for the first time, a police presence protected gay spectators and drag queens from anti-gay harassment at the annual Hallowe'en show at Toronto's St. Charles Tavern.

Europe

Pantomime dames

In the late 1800s to the mid-1900s, pantomime dames became a popular form of female impersonation in Europe.[29] This was the first era of female impersonation in Europe to use comedy as part of the performance, contrasting with the serious Shakespearean tragedies and Italian operas.[31] The dame became a stock character with a range of attitudes from "charwoman" to "grande dame" that mainly was used for improvisation.[31] The most famous and successful pantomime dame was Dan Leno. After World War I and World War II, the theatre and movie scenes were changing, and the use of pantomime dames declined.[29]

India

On 6 September 2018, the Supreme Court of India ruled that the application of Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code to consensual homosexual sex between adults was unconstitutional, "irrational, indefensible and manifestly arbitrary".[50] Since then, drag culture in India has been growing and becoming the mainstream art culture. The hotel chain of Lalit Groups spaced a franchise of clubs where drag performances are hosted in major cities of India such as Mumbai, Delhi and Banglore. Maya the drag queen,[51] Rani Kohinoor (Sushant Divgikar),[52] Lush Monsoon,[53][54] Betta Naan Stop,[55] Tropical Marca,[56] Zeeshan Ali[57] and Patruni Chidananda Sastry [58] are some of the Indian drag artists.

Drag queen names

Man reading a book in a store
Advert for drag queen jobs as spoofed in Wild Side Story

A drag queen may either pick or be given a drag name by a friend, sometimes called a "drag mother", the so named thus becoming known as a "drag daughter".[59] Drag mothers and drag daughters have a mentor-apprentice relationship. Drag families are a part of ball culture and drag 'houses'’.[60]

Art of drag

The process of getting into drag or into character can take hours. A drag queen may aim for a certain style, celebrity impression, or message with their look. Hair, make-up, and costumes are the most important essentials for drag queens.[61] Drag queens tend to go for a more exaggerated look with a lot more makeup than a typical feminine woman would wear.

Some people do drag simply as a means of self-expression,[62][63] but often drag queens (once they have completed a look) will go out to clubs and bars and perform in a "drag show."[64] Many drag queens do dress up for money by doing different shows, but there are also drag queens that have full-time jobs but still enjoy dressing up in drag as a hobby.[65]

Many parts of the drag show, and of the drag queens' other intellectual properties, cannot be protected by intellectual property law. To substitute the lack of legal protection, drag queens revert to social norms in order to protect their intellectual property.[66]

In entertainment