Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
वैज्ञानिक तथा औद्योगिक अनुसंधान परिषद
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research logo.png
Parent institutionMinistry of Science & Technology, Government of India
Founder(s)Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar and Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar
Established26 September 1942
PresidentPrime Minister of India
Director GeneralShekhar C. Mande
Budget₹3,098 Crore as of 2013 [1]
Subsidiaries38 laboratories

39 outreach centres

3 Innovation Centres
Location
Anusandhan Bhawan,

2 Rafi Marg,

New Delhi-110 001.
Websitecsir.res.in

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (IAST: vaigyanik tathā audyogik anusandhāna pariṣada) abbreviated as CSIR was established by the Government of India in September 1942 as an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India .

As of 2013, it runs 38 laboratories/institutes, 39 outreach centres, 3 Innovation Centres and 5 units throughout the nation, with a collective staff of over 14,000, including a total of 4,600 scientists and 8,000 technical and support personnel.[2] Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.[3]

The research and development activities of CSIR include aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.[3]

Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary of DST took additional charge as director general of CSIR, with effect from August 24, 2018. Since 18 October 2018, Shekhar C. Mande is the Director General of CSIR-cum-Secretary DSIR [4]

In terms of Intellectual property, CSIR has 2971 patents in force internationally and 1592 patents in force in India.[2] CSIR is granted more than 14000 patents worldwide since its inception. CSIR is awarded the National Intellectual Property (IP) Award 2018 in the category “Top R&D Institution / Organisation for Patents and Commercialisation” by Indian Patent Office.

In late 2007, the Minister of Science and Technology, Kapil Sibal stated, in a Question Hour session of the Parliament, that CSIR has developed 1,376 technologies/knowledgebase during the last decade of the 20th century.[5]

History

In the 1930s, the need for establishing research organisations for the development of natural resources and new industries in India began to emerge. Eminent citizens such as C. V. Raman, Lt. Col. Seymour Sewell and J. C. Ghosh had proposed the creation of an advisory board of scientific research. Sir Richard Gregory, then editor of Nature, was among the first people who officially reported to the British Government. After visiting scientific departments and universities in India in 1933, Gregory submitted to Samuel Hoare, Secretary of State for India, regarding the need of scientific organisation similar to the DSIR in Britain. Indian scientists at Calcutta and Bangalore initiated schemes to launch a National Institute of Sciences and an Indian Academy of Sciences, respectively. At the Fifth Industries Conference in 1933, the Provincial Governments of Bombay, Madras, Bihar and Orissa unanimously reiterated their demand for a co-ordinating forum for industrial research. Hoare advised the Viceroy, Lord Willingdon, to support the demand. However, in May 1934, Willingdon replied to Hoare saying, "The creation of a Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in India to promote the application of research to natural resources does not appear to be necessary." While the Indian DSIR was rejected, the colonial government provided a small concession. It instead offered to create an Industrial Intelligence and Research Bureau, which came into operation in April 1935 under the Indian Stores Department. The Bureau's limited resources (with a budget of ₹1.0 lakh per annum) made it impossible to initiate major research and industrial activities as had been hoped for; it was mainly concerned with testing and quality control.[6]

At the onset of World War II in 1939, the bureau was proposed to be abolished. Arguably, Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar became the most instrumental in the creation of CSIR in India.[7] As a member of Viceroy's executive council, and also of Commerce, he recommended that the Bureau should be terminated, not as a measure of economy, but to make room for a Board of Scientific and Industrial Research, which should be endowed with greater resources and wider objectives. It was by this persistence that the Board of Scientific and Industrial Research (BSIR) was created on 1 April 1940 for a period of two years. Mudaliar became the chair of the board. It was at this point that Bhatnagar was appointed to pilot the board, as the Director. The BSIR was allocated an annual budget of ₹5,00,000 under the Department of Commerce. By the end of 1940, about 80 researchers were engaged, of whom one-quarter was directly employed. Major achievements of BSIR included development of the techniques for the purification of Baluchistan sulphur anti-gas cloth manufacture, vegetable oil blends as fuel and lubricants, plastic packing cases for army boots and ammunition, dyes for uniforms and the preparation of vitamins, and the invention of a pyrethrum emulsifier and cream. In early 1941 Bhatnagar persuaded the government to set up an Industrial Research Utilisation Committee (IRUC) for translating results into application. The government then agreed to make a separate fund out of the royalties received from industry for further investment into industrial research. Mudaliar recommended that an Industrial Research Fund should be constituted, which would have an annual grant of ₹10,00,000 for a period of five years. This was accepted by the Central Assembly in Delhi at its session on 14 November 1941.

Then the constitution of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) as an autonomous body was prepared under Mudaliar and Bhatnagar. Thus, CSIR came into operation on 26 September 1942. The BSIR and IRUC were incorporated into the advisory bodies to the governing body of the CSIR. In 1943 the governing body of CSIR approved the proposal of Bhatnagar, though the initiative of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, to establish five national laboratories — the National Chemical Laboratory, the National Physical Laboratory, the Fuel Research Station, the Glass & Ceramics Research Institute and the National Metallurgical Laboratory. In 1944 in addition to its annual budget of ₹10 lakh, CSIR received a grant of ₹1 crore for the establishment of these laboratories. The Tata Industrial House donated ₹20 lakh for the chemical, metallurgical and fuel research laboratories.[6] The foundation for the Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute at Kolkata was the first to be laid, in December 1945; National Metallurgical Laboratory at Jamshedpur in November 1946; and that for the National Chemical Laboratory at Pune was the last, on 6 April 1947, four months before India became independent.[8] All the five establishments were completed by 1950.[7]

Organisation Structure

  1. President : Prime Minister (Ex-Officio) [9]
  2. Vice President : Minister of Science & Technology, India (Ex-Officio)
  3. Governing Body : The Director General is the head of the governing body. The other ex-officio member is the finance secretary (expenditures). Other members' terms are three years.
  4. CSIR Advisory Board : 15-member body composed of prominent members from respective fields of science and technology. Its function is to provide S&T inputs to the governing body. Member terms are three years.

CSIR achievements

A poster showing CSIR's combat mission against COVID-19