Brazilian general election, 2018

← 2014 7 October 2018 (2018-10-07) (first round)
28 October 2018 (2018-10-28) (second round)
2022 →
Opinion polls
Turnout79.67% (first round)
78.7% (second round)[1]
  Jair Bolsonaro pela EC 77 - Médico Militar no SUS (cropped).jpg Fernando Haddad Prefeito 2016.jpg
Candidate Jair Bolsonaro Fernando Haddad[a]
Party PSL PT
Alliance Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone The People Happy Again
Home state Rio de Janeiro[b] São Paulo
Running mate Hamilton Mourão Manuela d'Ávila
States carried 15 + DF 11
Popular vote 57,797,847 47,040,906
Percentage 55.13% 44.87%

Brazilian presidential election second round map.png
Map of results for each State and the Federal District.

President before election

Michel Temer
MDB

Elected President

Jair Bolsonaro
PSL

Official 2018 elections logo

General elections were held in Brazil on 7 October 2018 to elect the President, Vice President and the National Congress. Elections for state governors and vice governors, state legislative assemblies and the Legislative Chamber of the Federal District were held at the same time.

On 7 October 2018, Rio de Janeiro congressman Jair Bolsonaro came first in the first round of the presidential election. A run-off between him and former São Paulo mayor Fernando Haddad[3] was held on 28 October 2018. At 22:06 GMT, with 88% reporting, Bolsonaro was declared the winner with over 50% of the popular vote.[4]

Background

The 2014 elections saw Workers' Party candidate Dilma Rousseff reelected as President in the second round with 51.6% of the vote, defeating Aécio Neves of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party who received 48.4% of the vote.[5] Rousseff had first been elected in the 2010 elections, succeeding her political mentor, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who was in office from 2003 until 2011.[6]

However, on 3 December 2015, impeachment proceedings against Rousseff were officially accepted by the Chamber of Deputies.[7] On 12 May 2016, the Federal Senate temporarily suspended Rousseff's powers and duties for up to six months or until the Senate reached a verdict: to remove her from office if found guilty or to acquit her from the crimes charged.[8] Vice President Michel Temer, of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, assumed her powers and duties as Acting President of Brazil during the suspension.[9][10] On 31 August 2016, the Senate voted 61–20 in favor of impeachment, finding Rousseff guilty of breaking budgetary laws and removing her from office.[11][12] Critics of the impeachment saw it as a legislative coup d'état.[13] Vice President Temer succeeded Rousseff as the 37th President of Brazil. His government implemented policies that contradicted the platform on which Rousseff's Workers Party had been elected, in one of the most controversial and politically-heated periods of modern Brazilian history.[14]

Electoral system

Voters lined up waiting for their turn to vote in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

Voting in Brazil is allowed for citizens over 16 years of age, and mandatory for those between 18 and 70 years of age.[15] Those who do not vote in an election and do not later present an acceptable justification (such as being away from their voting location at the time) must pay a fine of 3.51 BRL (equivalent to 0.90 USD as of October 2018).[16][17] Brazilian citizens residing abroad only vote for president.[18]

Presidential elections

The President and the Vice President of Brazil are elected using the two-round system. Citizens may field their candidacies for the presidency, and participate in the general elections, which are held on the first Sunday in October (in this instance, 7 October 2018).[19] If the most-voted candidate takes more than 50% of the overall vote, he or she is declared elected. If the 50% threshold is not met by any candidate, a second round of voting is held on the last Sunday in October (in this instance, 28 October 2018). In the second round, only the two most-voted candidates from the first round may participate. The winner of the second round is elected President of Brazil. Candidates for President run for office jointly with a candidate for Vice-President, and the Vice-President is elected as a consequence of the election of the President.[20]

Gubernatorial elections

The Governors and Vice Governors of all states and of the Federal District were elected, in two rounds when needed, in the same way as the presidential election.[21]

Congressional elections

Federal Senate elections

Two-thirds of the 81 members of the Federal Senate will be elected for a term of 8 years in office, the other third having been elected in 2014. Two candidates will be elected from each of the states and Federal District using majority block voting, with voters able to cast two votes each.[22]

Chamber of Deputies elections

All 513 members of the Chamber of Deputies (federal deputies) will be elected, with candidates elected from 27 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the states and Federal District, varying in size from eight to 70 seats. The Chamber elections are held using open list proportional representation, with seats allocated using the simple quotient.[23]

Legislative Assemblies elections

All members of the State Legislative Assemblies (state deputies) and of the Federal District Legislative Chamber (district deputies), varying in size from 24 to 94 seats, will be elected. These elections are also held using open list proportional representation, with seats allocated using the simple quotient.[24]

Presidential candidates

Candidates in runoff

# Party/coalition Presidential candidate Political office(s) Vice-Presidential candidate
17
Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone
PSL, PRTB[25]
Jair Bolsonaro pela EC 77 - Médico Militar no SUS (cropped).jpg
Jair Bolsonaro (PSL)
(campaign)
Federal Deputy for Rio de Janeiro (1991–)
Mourão aniversario da constituição (cropped).jpg
Gen. Hamilton Mourão (PRTB)
13
The People Happy Again
PT,[26] PROS,[27] PCdoB[28]
Fernando Haddad Prefeito 2016 (cropped).jpg
Fernando Haddad (PT)
(campaign)
51st Mayor of São Paulo (2013–17)
Manuela d'Ávila em setembro de 2018 (cropped).jpg
Manuela d'Ávila (PCdoB)

Candidates failing to make runoff

# Party/coalition Presidential candidate Political office(s) Vice-Presidential candidate
12
Sovereign Brazil[29]
PDT, AVANTE
Ciro Gomes em 29-07-2010 (Agência Brasil) (cropped).jpg
Ciro Gomes (PDT)
(campaign)
former Governor of Ceará (1991–94) and Federal Deputy for Ceará (2007–11)
Senadora Kátia Abreu Oficial.jpg
Kátia Abreu[30] (PDT)
15
This is the Solution
MDB, PHS[31]
Henrique Meirelles recebe o ministro das Finanças do Reino Unido - 35459912404 (cropped).jpg
Henrique Meirelles (MDB)
(campaign)
Minister of the Economy (2016–2018) and former President of the Central Bank of Brazil (2003–11)
Germano Rigotto em janeiro de 2009.jpg
Germano Rigotto (MDB)
16
United Socialist Workers' Party (PSTU)
Vera Lúcia no Dia Internacional da Mulher Trabalhadora 2018 - PSTU (cropped).jpg
Vera Lúcia (PSTU)
(campaign)
Labor organizer
Hertz Dias PSTU (cropped).jpg
Hertz Dias (PSTU)
18
United to Transform Brazil
REDE, PV
Marina Silva em março de 2018 (2) (cropped).jpg
Marina Silva (REDE)
(campaign)
Senator for Acre (1995–2011)[32]
Eduardo Jorge em Convenção 2018 - Vice presidente (cropped).jpg
Eduardo Jorge (PV)
19
Real Change
PODE, PSC, PTC, PRP
Foto oficial de Álvaro Dias (cropped).jpg
Álvaro Dias
(PODE)
(campaign)
Senator for Paraná (1983–87, 1999–2018)[33][34]
Paulo Rabello de Castro.png
Paulo Rabello de Castro (PSC)
27
Christian Democracy (DC)
José Maria Eymael no senado.jpg
José Maria Eymael (DC)
(campaign)
Federal Deputy for São Paulo (1986–95)[35]
Caricatura do Professor Helvio Costa.tif
Helvio Costa (DC)
30
New Party (NOVO)
João Amoêdo review ContabilidadeTv (cropped).jpg
João Amoêdo (NOVO)
(campaign)
President of NOVO (2015–17)[36]
Christian-Lohbauer.jpg
Christian Lohbauer (NOVO)
45
To unite Brazil[37]
PSDB, DEM, PP, PR, PRB, SD, PTB, PSD, PPS
Governador Geraldo Alckmin Anuncia Duplicação da Euclides da Cunha em 2011 (cropped).jpg
Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB)
(campaign)
Governor of São Paulo (2001–06, 2011–18)[38]
Foto oficial de Ana Amélia Lemos.jpg
Ana Amélia (PP)
50
Let's Go Without Fear of Changing Brazil[39]
PSOL, PCB
Guilherme Boulos em São Paulo.jpg
Guilherme Boulos (PSOL)
(campaign)
Professor at University of São Paulo, coordinator of the Homeless Workers' Movement activist, and writer.
Sônia Guajajara (cropped).jpg
Sônia Guajajara (PSOL)
51
Patriota (PATRI)
Deputados cabo Daciolo (PSOL-RJ) e Marcos Reategui (PSC-AP) participam do programa Brasil em Debate (cropped).jpg
Cabo Daciolo (PATRI)
(campaign)
Federal Deputy for Rio de Janeiro (2015–)[40]
Caricatura Suelene Nascimento - Patri.png
Suelene Balduino Nascimento (PATRI)
54
Free Homeland Party (PPL)
João Vicente Goulart sobre exumação (cropped).jpg
João Vicente Goulart (PPL)
(campaign)
State Deputy of Rio Grande do Sul (1982–86)
Caricatura de Léo Alves PPL.png
Léo Alves (PPL)

Lost in primaries or conventions

Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)

Campaign

Rejection of Lula's candidacy

On 1 September, the Superior Electoral Court voted 6–1 to reject Lula's candidacy, but approved the PT-PCdoB-PROS coalition "The People Happy Again" and the vice-presidential candidacy of Fernando Haddad.[95] The Workers' Party replaced Lula with Haddad and announced the former presidential candidate Manuela D'Ávila as his running mate.[96]

Stabbing of Jair Bolsonaro

Bolsonaro being stabbed at a Juiz de Fora rally

Jair Bolsonaro was stabbed on 6 September 2018 while campaigning in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais and interacting with supporters.[97] Bolsonaro's son, Flávio, has stated that his father's wounds were only superficial and he was recovering in hospital.[98] Police arrested and identified the attacker as Adelio Bispo de Oliveira, who claimed that he was "ordered by God to carry out the attack".[99] Flávio Bolsonaro later stated that the wounds inflicted seem worse than initially thought. He tweeted about his father's condition, explaining that the perforation reached part of the liver, the lung and part of the intestine. He also stated that Bolsonaro had lost a large amount of blood, arriving at the hospital with a pressure of 10/3, but had since stabilized.[100][101][97] Most of the other candidates in the presidential race (from both sides of the political spectrum), and the current Brazilian president, Michel Temer, condemned the attack.[102] After being stabbed, Bolsonaro did not attend any further debates.[103]

Debates

Two debates were held on 9 August and 17 August, featuring eight presidential candidates: Bolsonaro, Alckmin, Silva, Gomes, Dias, Meirelles, Boulos, and Daciolo. Lula was unable to participate in the debates.[104] The 9 August debate was moderated by Ricardo Boechat,[105] and the 17 August debate was moderated by Amanda Klein, Boris Casoy and Mariana Godoy.[106]

A debate scheduled for 27 August[107] was canceled after Jair Bolsonaro expressed his uncertainty about participating in the debates and the Workers' Party insisted on the participation of Lula, prohibited by the Electoral Justice.[108] Bolsonaro did not participate in further debates after he was attacked on 6 September.[109]

After a debate on 9 September moderated by Maria Lydia Flândoli,[110] Fernando Haddad participated in all remaining debates. These occurred on 20 September (moderated by Joyce Ribeiro),[111] 26 September (moderated by Carlos Nascimento),[112] 30 September (moderated by Adriana Araújo and Celso Freitas),[113] and 4 October (moderated by William Bonner).[114]

A vice presidential debate was held on 5 September featuring four candidates; Fernando Haddad did not attend.[115]

While several debates were scheduled for the second round, none were held. Debates planned for 12 October,[116] 14 October,[117] and 15 October[118] were cancelled due to Bolsonaro's health issues. A debate scheduled for 21 October[119] was cancelled after the campaigns were unable to agree to terms.

Opinion polls

Results

President

First place candidate on first round per state
Second round results by state
Candidate Party Running mate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Jair Bolsonaro PSL Hamilton Mourão PRTB 49,276,990 46.03 57,797,847 55.13
Fernando Haddad PT Manuela d'Ávila PCdoB 31,342,005 29.28 47,040,906 44.87
Ciro Gomes PDT Kátia Abreu PDT 13,344,366 12.47
Geraldo Alckmin PSDB Ana Amélia PP 5,096,349 4.76
João Amoêdo NOVO Christian Lohbauer NOVO 2,679,744 2.50
Cabo Daciolo PATRI Suelene Balduino PATRI 1,348,323 1.26
Henrique Meirelles MDB Germano Rigotto MDB 1,288,948 1.20
Marina Silva REDE Eduardo Jorge PV 1,069,577 1.00
Álvaro Dias PODE Paulo Rabello de Castro PSC 859,601 0.80
Guilherme Boulos PSOL Sônia Guajajara PSOL 617,122 0.58
Vera Lúcia PSTU Hertz Dias PSTU 55,762 0.05
José Maria Eymael DC Hélvio Costa DC 41,710 0.04
João Vicente Goulart PPL Léo Dias PPL 30,176 0.03
Invalid/blank votes 10,313,141 11,094,698
Total 117,364,560 100 115,933,451 100
Registered voters/turnout 147,305,825 79.67 147,305,155 78.70
Source: Globo
Popular vote (first round)
Bolsonaro
46.03%
Haddad
29.28%
Ciro
12.47%
Alckmin
4.76%
Amoêdo
2.50%
Daciolo
1.26%
Meirelles
1.20%
Silva
1.00%
Others
1.50%
Popular vote (second round)
Bolsonaro
55.13%
Haddad
44.87%

Congress

Chamber of Deputies
Senate
Party Chamber of Deputies Senate
Votes % Seats +/– Votes % Elected Total +/–
Social Liberal Party 11,457,878 11.7 52 +44 19,413,869 11.3 4 4 +4
Workers' Party 10,126,611 10.3 56 –13 24,785,670 14.5 4 6 –6
Brazilian Social Democracy Party 5,905,541 6.0 29 –25 20,310,558 11.9 4 8 –2
Social Democratic Party 5,749,008 5.8 34 –2 8,202,342 4.8 4 6 +3
Progressistas 5,480,067 5.6 37 –1 7,529,901 4.4 5 6 +1
Brazilian Democratic Movement 5,439,167 5.5 34 –32 12,800,290 7.5 7 12 –6
Brazilian Socialist Party 5,386,400 5.5 32 –2 8,234,195 4.8 2 5 –2
Republic Party 5,224,591 5.3 33 –1 3,130,082 1.8 1 2 –2
Brazilian Republican Party 4,992,016 5.1 30 +9 1,505,607 0.9 1 1
Democrats 4,581,162 4.7 29 +8 9,218,658 5.4 4 7 +2
Democratic Labour Party 4,545,846 4.6 28 +9 7,737,982 4.5 2 6 –2
Socialism and Liberty Party 2,783,669 2.8 10 +5 5,273,853 3.1 0 0 –1
New Party 2,748,079 2.8 8 New 3,467,746 2.0 0 0
Podemos 2,243,320 2.3 11 +7 5,494,125 3.2 1 1 +1
Republican Party of the Social Order 2,042,610 2.1 8 –3 1,370,513 0.8 1 1
Brazilian Labour Party 2,022,719 2.1 10 –15 1,899,838 1.1 2 4 +1
Solidariedade 1,953,067 2.0 13 –2 4,001,903 2.3 1 1
Avante 1,844,048 1.9 7 +5 713,379 0.4 0 0
Social Christian Party 1,765,226 1.8 8 –5 4,126,068 2.4 1 1 +1
Green Party 1,592,173 1.6 4 –4 1,226,392 0.7 0 0 –1
Popular Socialist Party 1,590,084 1.6 8 –2 2,954,800 1.7 2 2 +2
Patriota 1,432,304 1.5 5 +3 60,589 0.0 0 0
Humanist Party of Solidarity 1,426,444 1.5 6 +1 4,228,973 2.5 2 2 +2
Communist Party of Brazil 1,329,575 1.4 9 –1 1,673,190 1.0 0 0 –1
Progressive Republican Party 851,368 0.9 4 +1 1,974,061 1.2 1 1 +1
Sustainability Network 816,784 0.8 1 New 7,166,003 4.2 5 5 New
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party 684,976 0.7 0 –1 886,267 0.5 0 0
Party of National Mobilization 634,129 0.6 3 329,973 0.2 0 0
Christian Labour Party 601,814 0.6 2 222,931 0.1 0 0
Free Homeland Party 385,197 0.4 1 +1 504,209 0.3 0 0
Christian Democracy 369,386 0.4 1 –1 154,068 0.1 0 0
Party of Brazilian Women 228,302 0.2 0 51,027 0.0 0 0
Brazilian Communist Party 61,343 0.1 0 256,655 0.1 0 0
United Socialist Workers Party 41,304 0.0 0 413,914 0.2 0 0
Workers Cause Party 2,785 0.0 0 38,691 0.0 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 18,771,737 61,995,824
Total 117,111,476 100.0 513 0 117,111,478 100.0 54 81 0
Registered voters/turnout 146,750,529 79.8 146,750,529 79.8
Source: Election Resources

Aftermath and reactions