Brazilian general election, 2018

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28 October 2018 (2018-10-28) (second round, if needed)
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Opinion polls

  Jair Messias Bolsonaro (cropped).jpg Fernando Haddad Prefeito 2016 (cropped).jpg Marina Silva em março de 2018 (2) (cropped).jpg
Candidate Jair Bolsonaro Fernando Haddad[a] Marina Silva
Party PSL PT REDE
Alliance Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone The People Happy Again United to Transform Brazil
Home state Rio de Janeiro[b] São Paulo Acre
Running mate Antônio Hamilton Mourão Manuela d'Ávila Eduardo Jorge

  Ciro Gomes em 29-07-2010 (Agência Brasil) (cropped).jpg Governador Geraldo Alckmin Anuncia Duplicação da Euclides da Cunha em 2011 (cropped).jpg Foto oficial de Álvaro Dias (cropped) (cropped).jpg
Candidate Ciro Gomes Geraldo Alckmin Álvaro Dias
Party PDT PSDB PODE
Alliance Sovereign Brazil To unite Brazil Real Change
Home state Ceará[c] São Paulo Paraná
Running mate Kátia Abreu Ana Amélia Lemos Paulo Rabello de Castro

  João Amoêdo (cropped).jpg Henrique Meirelles recebe o ministro das Finanças do Reino Unido - 35459912404 (cropped).jpg Guilherme Boulos em São Paulo (cropped).jpg
Candidate João Amoêdo Henrique Meirelles Guilherme Boulos
Party NOVO MDB PSOL
Alliance None This is the Solution Let's Go Without Fear of Changing Brazil
Home state Rio de Janeiro Goiás São Paulo
Running mate Christian Lohbauer Germano Rigotto Sônia Guajajara

Incumbent President

Michel Temer
MDB



Official 2018 election's logo

General elections are scheduled to be held in Brazil on 7 October 2018 to elect the President, Vice President and the National Congress. Elections for state Governors and Vice Governors, state Legislative Assemblies and Federal District Legislative Chamber will be held at the same time.

The 2014 elections saw Workers' Party candidate Dilma Rousseff reelected as President in the second round with 51.6% of the vote, defeating Aécio Neves of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party who received 48.4% of the vote.[2] Rousseff had first been elected in the 2010 elections, succeeding her political mentor, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who was in office from 2003 until 2011.

However, on 3 December 2015, impeachment proceedings against Rousseff were officially accepted by the Chamber of Deputies.[3] On 12 May 2016, the Federal Senate temporarily suspended Rousseff's powers and duties for up to six months or until the Senate reached a verdict: to remove her from office if found guilty or to acquit her from the crimes charged.[4] Vice President Michel Temer, of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, assumed her powers and duties as Acting President of Brazil during the suspension.[5][6] On 31 August 2016, the Senate voted 61–20 in favor of impeachment, finding Rousseff guilty of breaking budgetary laws and removing her from office.[7][8] Critics of the impeachment saw it as a legislative coup d'état, since the budgetary adjustments happened in her first term, and not after her re-election. Vice President Temer succeeded Rousseff as the 37th President of Brazil. His government implemented policies that contradicted the platform on which Rousseff's Workers Party had been elected, in one of the most controversial and politically-heated periods of modern Brazilian history.

Electoral system

Presidential elections

The President and the Vice President of Brazil are elected using the two-round system. Citizens may field their candidacies for the presidency, and participate in the general elections, which are held on the first Sunday in October (in this instance, 7 October 2018).[9] If the most-voted candidate takes more than 50% of the overall vote, he or she is declared elected. If the 50% threshold is not met by any candidate, a second round of voting is held on the last Sunday in October (in this instance, 28 October 2018). In the second round, only the two most-voted candidates from the first round may participate. The winner of the second round is elected President of Brazil. The President selects his/her Vice President.

Congressional elections

Federal Senate elections

Two-thirds of the 81 members of the Federal Senate will be elected, the other third having been elected in 2014. Two candidates will be elected from each of the states using majority block voting, with voters able to cast two votes each.[10]

Chamber of Deputies elections

All 513 members of the Chamber of Deputies will be elected, with candidates elected from 27 multi-member constituencies based on the states, varying in size from seven to 70 seats. The Chamber elections are held using open list proportional representation, with seats allocated using the simple quotient.[11] Voting is mandatory and abstainers can be fined.[10]

Legislative Assemblies elections

The State Legislative Assemblies and the Federal District Legislative Chamber elections are held using open list proportional representation, with seats allocated using the simple quotient.

Number of members of each State Legislative Assembly, Federal District Legislative Chamber and the Chamber of Deputies of each States.

Composition of State Legislatures
Federative Unit State and District Deputies Federal Deputies
Acre 24 8
Alagoas 27 8
Amapá 24 8
Amazonas 24 9
Bahia 63 39
Ceará 46 24
Federal District 24 8
Espirito Santo 30 9
Goiás 41 17
Maranhão 42 18
Mato Grosso 24 8
Mato Grosso do Sul 24 8
Minas Gerais 78 55
Pará 41 21
Paraíba 36 12
Paraná 54 29
Pernambuco 49 24
Piauí 30 8
Rio de Janeiro 71 45
Rio Grande do Norte 24 8
Rio Grande do Sul 55 30
Rondônia 24 8
Roraima 24 8
Santa Catarina 40 17
Sergipe 24 8
São Paulo 94 70
Tocantins 25 8

Presidential candidates

Confirmed candidates

# Presidential candidate Vice-Presidential candidate Party/coalition Former positions Main article
12
Ciro Gomes em 29-07-2010 (Agência Brasil) (cropped).jpg
Ciro Gomes (PDT)
Senadora Kátia Abreu Oficial.jpg
Kátia Abreu[12] (PDT)
Sovereign Brazil[13]
PDT, AVANTE
Federal Deputy from Ceará 2007–2011; Minister of National Integration 2003–2006; Minister of Finance 1994–1995; Governor of Ceará 1991–1994; Mayor of Fortaleza 1989–1990; State Deputy of Ceará 1983–1989; candidate for President in 1998 and 2002.
13
Fernando Haddad Prefeito 2016 (cropped).jpg
Fernando Haddad (PT)
Manuela d'Ávila em setembro de 2018 (cropped).jpg
Manuela d'Ávila (PCdoB)
The People Happy Again
PT,[14] PROS,[15] PCdoB[16]
51st Mayor of São Paulo 2013–2017; Minister of Education 2005–2012.
15
Henrique Meirelles recebe o ministro das Finanças do Reino Unido - 35459912404 (cropped).jpg
Henrique Meirelles (MDB)
Germano Rigotto em janeiro de 2009.jpg
Germano Rigotto (MDB)
This is the Solution
MDB, PHS
Minister of the Economy 2016–2018; President of the Central Bank of Brazil 2003–2011; Federal Deputy from Goiás 2003; President of FleetBoston Financial's Global Banking 1999–2002; President and COO of BankBoston 1996–1999; President of BankBoston Brasil 1984–1996.
16
Vera Lúcia no Dia Internacional da Mulher Trabalhadora 2018 - PSTU (cropped).jpg
Vera Lúcia (PSTU)
Hertz Dias PSTU (cropped).jpg
Hertz Dias (PSTU)
United Socialist Workers' Party (PSTU)
Unionist
17
Jair Messias Bolsonaro.png
Jair Bolsonaro (PSL)
General Hamilton Mourão.jpg
Gen. Hamilton Mourão (PRTB)
Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone
PSL, PRTB
Federal Deputy from Rio de Janeiro since 1991; Alderman of Rio de Janeiro 1989–1991.
18
Marina Silva em março de 2018 (2) (cropped).jpg
Marina Silva (REDE)
Eduardo Jorge em Convenção 2018 - Vice presidente (cropped).jpg
Eduardo Jorge (PV)
United to Transform Brazil
REDE, PV
Spokeswoman of the REDE since 2013; Senator from Acre 1995–2011; Minister of the Environment 2003–2008; State Deputy of Acre 1991–1995; Alderwoman of Rio Branco 1989–1991; candidate for President in 2010 and 2014.[17]
19
Foto oficial de Álvaro Dias (cropped).jpg
Álvaro Dias (PODE)
Paulo Rabello de Castro.png
Paulo Rabello de Castro (PSC)
Real Change
PODE, PSC, PTC, PRP
Álvaro DiasSenator from Paraná 1983–1987 and since 1999; Governor of Paraná 1987–1991; Federal Deputy from Paraná 1975–1983; State Deputy of Paraná 1971–1975.[18][19]
27
José Maria Eymael no senado.jpg
José Maria Eymael (DC)
Caricatura do Professor Helvio Costa.tif
Helvio Costa (DC)
Christian Democracy (DC)
President of the DC since 1997; Federal Deputy from São Paulo 1986–1995; candidate for President in 1998, 2006, 2010 and 2014; candidate for Mayor of São Paulo in 2012.[20]
30
João Amoêdo review ContabilidadeTv (cropped).jpg
João Amoêdo (NOVO)
Christian-Lohbauer.jpg
Christian Lohbauer (NOVO)
New Party (NOVO)
João Dionisio Amoêdo – President of the NOVO 2011–2017.[21]
45
Governador Geraldo Alckmin Anuncia Duplicação da Euclides da Cunha em 2011 (cropped).jpg
Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB)
Foto oficial de Ana Amélia Lemos.jpg
Ana Amélia (PP)
To unite Brazil[22]
PSDB, DEM, PP, PR, PRB, SD, PTB, PSD, PPS
Geraldo AlckminGovernor of São Paulo 2011–2018 and 2001–2006; President of the PSDB since 2017; State Secretary of Development of São Paulo 2009–2010; Vice Governor of São Paulo 1995–2001; Federal Deputy from São Paulo 1987–1994; State Deputy of São Paulo 1983–1987; Mayor of Pindamonhangaba 1977–1982; Alderman of Pindamonhangaba 1973–1977; candidate for President in 2006.[23]
50
Guilherme Boulos em São Paulo.jpg
Guilherme Boulos (PSOL)
Sônia Guajajara (cropped).jpg
Sônia Guajajara (PSOL)
Let's Go Without Fear of Changing Brazil[24]
PSOL, PCB
Professor at USP, political and social activist, coordinator of the MTST and writer.
51
Deputados cabo Daciolo (PSOL-RJ) e Marcos Reategui (PSC-AP) participam do programa Brasil em Debate (cropped).jpg
Cabo Daciolo (PATRI)
Caricatura Suelene Nascimento - Patri.png
Suelene Balduino Nascimento (PATRI)
Patriota (PATRI)
Federal Deputy from Rio de Janeiro since 2015.[25]
54
João Vicente Goulart sobre exumação (cropped).jpg
João Vicente Goulart (PPL)
Caricatura de Léo Alves PPL.png
Léo Alves (PPL)
Free Homeland Party (PPL)
State Deputy of Rio Grande do Sul 1982–1986.

Lost in primaries or conventions

Declined candidates

Opinion polls

First Round

with Lula

Graph showing 5 poll average trend lines of Brazilian opinion polls from June 2015 to the most recent one. Each line corresponds to a political party. The markers for PT correspond to the potential candidate Lula. The markers for PSDB until 9–10 April 2015 correspond to the potential candidate Aécio Neves, and from 17–18 June 2015 correspond to the potential candidate Geraldo Alckmin. The markers for MDB from 28 October–2 November 2015 to 29–31 July 2017, 27–30 October 2017, 28 February–3 March 2018, 27 April–2 May 2018 and 15–18 and 21–23 May 2018 correspond to the potential candidate Michel Temer instead of Henrique Meirelles.

without Lula

Graph showing 5 poll average trend lines of Brazilian opinion polls from June 2015 to the most recent one. Each line corresponds to a political party. The markers for PT on 18–21 December 2017 and 29–30 January 2018 correspond to the potential candidate Jaques Wagner instead of Fernando Haddad. The markers for MDB on 28 February–3 March 2018 and 27 April–2 May 2018 correspond to the potential candidate Michel Temer instead of Henrique Meirelles. The marker for PSDB on 25–29 May 2017 corresponds to the potential candidate João Doria instead of Geraldo Alckmin.

Second Round

Bolsonaro-Lula

Graph showing 5 poll average trend lines of Brazilian opinion polls for the second round between Lula (PT) and Bolsonaro (PSL) from April 2017 to the most recent one.

Bolsonaro-Silva

Graph showing 5 poll average trend lines of Brazilian opinion polls for the second round Marina Silva (REDE) and Bolsonaro (PSL) from April 2017 to the most recent one.

Attack during campaign event

Jair Bolsonaro was stabbed on 6 September 2018 while campaigning in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais and interacting with supporters.[83] Bolsonaro's son, Flávio, has stated that his father's wounds were only superficial and he was recovering in hospital.[84] Police arrested and identified the attacker as Adelio Bispo de Oliveira, who claimed that he was "ordered by God to carry out the attack".[85] Flávio Bolsonaro later stated that the wounds inflicted seem worse than initially thought. He tweeted about his father's condition, explaining that the perforation reached part of the liver, the lung and part of the intestine. He also stated that Bolsonaro had lost a large amount of blood, arriving at the hospital with a pressure of 10/3, but had since stabilized.[86][87][83] Most of the other candidates in the presidential race (from both sides of the political spectrum), and the current Brazilian president, Michel Temer, condemned the attack.[88]

Debates

Presidential debates

Date Host Moderator Lula (PT) Jair Bolsonaro (PSL) Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Marina Silva (REDE) Ciro Gomes (PDT) Álvaro Dias (PODE) Henrique Meirelles (MDB) Guilherme Boulos (PSOL) Cabo Daciolo (PATRI) João Vicente Goulart (PPL) João Amoêdo (NOVO) Eymael (DC) Vera Lúcia (PSTU)
9 August 2018[89] Rede Bandeirantes Ricardo Boechat Absent[d] Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not invited Not invited Not invited Not invited
17 August 2018[90] RedeTV!, Istoé Amanda Klein, Boris Casoy and Mariana Godoy Absent[e] Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not invited Not invited Not invited Not invited
27 August 2018[92] Jovem Pan N/A Cancelled[f]

On 1 September 2018, the Superior Electoral Court voted 6–1 to reject Lula's candidacy, but approved the PT-PCdoB-PROS coalition "The People Happy Again" and the vice-presidential candidacy of Fernando Haddad.[94] The Workers' Party replaced Lula with Haddad and announced the former presidential candidate Manuela D'Ávila as his running mate.[95]

Date Host Moderator Fernando Haddad (PT) Jair Bolsonaro (PSL) Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Marina Silva (REDE) Ciro Gomes (PDT) Álvaro Dias (PODE) Henrique Meirelles (MDB) Guilherme Boulos (PSOL) Cabo Daciolo (PATRI) João Vicente Goulart (PPL) João Amoêdo (NOVO) Eymael (DC) Vera Lúcia (PSTU)
9 September 2018[96] TV Gazeta, O Estado de S. Paulo Maria Lydia Flândoli Absent[g] Absent[h] Present Present Present Present Present Present Absent[i] Not invited Not invited Not invited Not invited
18 September 2018[98] Piauí, Poder360 N/A Cancelled[j]
20 September 2018[100] Rede Aparecida Joyce Ribeiro Present Absent Present Present Present Present Present Present Absent Not invited Not invited Not invited Not invited
26 September 2018[101] SBT, Folha, UOL Carlos Nascimento Invited Invited Invited Invited Invited Invited Invited Invited Invited Not invited Not invited Not invited Not invited
30 September 2018[102] RecordTV, R7
4 October 2018[103] Globo, G1

Vice presidential debates

Date Host Moderator Fernando Haddad (PT) Hamilton Mourão (PSL) Ana Amélia (PSDB) Eduardo Jorge (REDE) Kátia Abreu (PDT) Paulo Rabello (PODE) Germano Rigotto (MDB) Sônia Guajajara (PSOL) Suelene Balduino (PATRI) Léo Alves (PPL) Christian Lohbauer (NOVO) Helvio Costa (DC) Hertz Dias (PSTU)
5 September 2018[104] Veja Lillian Witte Absent Present Present Present Absent Present Not invited Not invited Not invited Not invited Not invited Not invited Not invited

Results

President

Candidate Party Running mate Party Votes %
Álvaro Dias Podemos Paulo Rabello de Castro Social Christian Party
Cabo Daciolo Patriota Suelene Balduino Patriota
Ciro Gomes Democratic Labor Party Kátia Abreu Democratic Labor Party
Fernando Haddad Workers' Party Manuela d'Ávila Communist Party
Geraldo Alckmin Brazilian Social Democracy Party Ana Amélia Progressistas
Guilherme Boulos Socialism and Liberty Party Sônia Guajajara Socialism and Liberty Party
Henrique Meirelles Brazilian Democratic Movement Germano Rigotto Brazilian Democratic Movement
Jair Bolsonaro Social Liberal Party Hamilton Mourão Brazilian Labour Renewal Party
João Amoêdo New Party Christian Lohbauer New Party
João Vicente Goulart Free Homeland Party Léo Dias Free Homeland Party
José Maria Eymael Christian Democracy Hélvio Costa Christian Democracy
Marina Silva Sustainability Network Eduardo Jorge Green Party
Vera Lúcia United Socialist Workers' Party Hertz Dias United Socialist Workers' Party
Invalid/blank votes
Total
Registered voters/turnout
Source:

Congress

Party Chamber of Deputies Senate
Votes % Seats +/– Votes % Elected Total +/–
Brazilian Democratic Movement
Brazilian Social Democracy Party
Workers Party
Progressive Party
Social Democratic Party
Democrats
Republic Party
Brazilian Socialist Party
Democratic Labour Party
Brazilian Republican Party
Brazilian Labour Party
Communist Party of Brazil
Solidarity
Podemos
Social Christian Party
Republican Party of the Social Order
Popular Socialist Party
Avante
Patriota
Social Liberal Party
Progressive Republican Party
Socialism and Liberty Party
Sustainability Network
Humanist Party of Solidarity
Green Party
Party of Brazilian Women
New Party
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party
United Socialist Workers Party
Workers Cause Party
Christian Labour Party
Brazilian Communist Party
Free Homeland Party
Christian Social Democratic Party
Party of National Mobilization
Invalid/blank votes
Total 100 513 0 100 54 81 0
Registered voters/turnout
Source:

See also