Asman is the Avestan and Middle Persian name of the Zoroastrian divinity that is the hypostasis of the sky. Asman is the "highest heaven," and is distinguished from the firmament (thwasha), which lies nearer the earth. The 27th day of the Zoroastrian calendar is dedicated to him. In the Veda, "ashman" अश्मन, means sky. It also means "stone" so the specific sense in reference to the sky is as "stony firmament".

In the Avesta, specifically in the Vendidad, the word is mentioned as being the first thing created. The word is also the origination of the word (آسمان) aasmaan in modern Persian, Urdu and Pashto as well as (ਅਸਮਾਨ) asmaan in Punjabi, (आसमान) in Hindi, (আসমান) in Bengali and (ꠀꠣꠡꠝꠣꠘ) ashman in Sylheti.[1]



  • Gershevitch, Ilya; Fisher, William Bayne (1985). Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press.